REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS AS INSTRUMENT OF BEHAVIOURAL MODIFICATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS
Background to the Study
Children of all ages misbehave at times. Behavior change with age and the poor behavior of school children differs vastly from each other. No matter the stages of life using a behavior modification system the involves reward and punishments is an effective way to get school children to do the things teachers want them to do and stop engaging themselves in undesired behaviours.
According to Eliza (2008) behavior modification is a system that someone employ to change how a child behaves by giving him/her props for good behavior and using a punishment as away to stop him from doing bad. He also said that when you catch a child doing something you want him to do, such as getting his home and class work done on time you make a big praise out of it. The changes are; he will –want to repeat the behavior because your reward made him feel good. If on the other hand an appropriate punishment helps deter him from doing bad.
Reward according to Eliza (2008) is very important if it used in appropriate to correct your pupils. A 2008 study conducted by Dutch neuroscientist studying learning strategies at Leiden University, children don’t adequately process negative feedback until they reach their early teens. For this reason, rewarding children’s seems to have more impact on behaviours than punishment. Match rewards to the behaviors you want to see and it probably won’t take long to see a positive change putting away his toys before dinner means your child gets an extra bedtime story. If he gets weekend chores done, he gets to see a movie with friends.
Mateva and Theses, (2009) punishments, just like rewards punishments work best when they are age appropriate. A time-out might work well for your preschooler. But probably won’t have impact on your twee. Punishment fall into two categories: physical and non-physical. The family Doctor website advises against using the former, such as with spanking, because it does not work long-term and can increase aggressive behavior in your child. Instead, match the punishment to the behavior. Your teen forgets to fill the car with gas so he does not get to drive for two days, or your preschooler does not put his crayons away so you put them up as for a few days before he gets them back.
Teacher might have the most luck using a combination of rewards and punishments as you attempt to change your child’s behavior. However, some children will naturally respond better to one or the other, making it best choice for your family. Go over the rules with your child so he is aware of your expectations. After all, it is then easier for him to do what you want to do if he knows what those guidelines are. Your rewards and punishments should change over time as your child gets older or he might quit responding to them in a positive way.
Behavior of primary school children:
It parents and the society at large are to realize some of the aims of sending their children to school and if teachers in primary schools are really interested in making their pupils to the more effective, then the use of reward and punishment in teaching cannot be over emphasized.
Statement of The Problem
This study is to examine the influence of reward or punishment on the behavior of primary school children and ascertain which is better for efficiency in school. The study also tries to investigate whether reward or punishment lends to a permanent change in primary school children behaviours or a temporary one.
Purpose of the Study
There is need for the use of reinforcement by teachers in the classroom in order to facilitate great importance of school education. This study is to examine the extent to which primary school teacher in Ikere Local Government Area use reinforcement. The various effects of rewards and punishment on the behaviors of primary school children are investigated the study also attempt to look for ways in which to use these incentive (punishment, reinforcement and reward) to faster good behaviors in various learning situations.
Reward and punishment have influence behavior among primary school children in Ikere Local Government as a whole. In recent years, it has been observed that primary school children behaviours such as truancy, stealing, laziness, and street fighting acts beyond parental control and will full disobedience are determined by various factors. Hence there will be negative attitude of primary school children to discipline adequate research of this kind is needed to investigation the effects of those factors (reward and punishment) on the behavior of primary school children to school and it teachers in primary schools are really interested
In making their pupils to the more effective, then the use of reward and punishment in teaching cannot be over emphasized. Past research has shown that reward and punishments imposed on primary school pupils may contribute to increases in pupil’s motivation and academic achievement. However, alternative research findings indicate that pupils may exhibit temporary compliance with such external stimuli may and not develop intrinsic motivation to perform well academically over an extended time frame. The purpose of this was to understand and discover how pupils responded motivationally when teachers issued rewards and punishments (such as candy for a reward, detention for a punishment).
- Are teachers in the primary schools finds a way of rewarding heir pupils, when they do something good?
- Is punishment serving a corrective measure when administer on learners?
- Has reward any positive affection to learning habit?
Significant of the Study
- The study will help the teacher to know that reward or punishment which ever is applicable should be applied immediately after the desired or undesired behaviours is exhibited and not long after it has be exhibited.
- The study will also help teachers to know which and to apply punishment or reward and when they are to be used.
- The study will help the teachers to know that reward and punishment can be combined together for application in the class room setting reward motivates the pupils to learn more while punishment removes unwanted behaviours and also improves some pupils academic performance.
Delimitation of the Study
The research work is based on the study of primary school pupils. As a result effort would be made to concentrate on the extent to which reinforcement (both positive and negative) tend to improve learning.
The researcher limits the study to primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti-State. The study is carried out in randomly selected schools in the Local Government Area.
Definition of Terms
In a course of this nature some operative words need be defined to make the research work comprehensive and explicit.
Reward: Reward is something given or received in return for a service.
Punishment: Punishment is that which an offender is made to suffer because of his or her wrong doing.
Behaviour Modification: Behaviour modification may be viewed as the management of behaviour in a way that individuals and groups become more effective. It’s a process of undertaking an experimental analysis of any problem in behavior (to identify the wide range factors that may be casual to and sustaining it and to utilize principles from many area of study including learning theories to make the individual more effective).
Reinforcement: Reinforcement is the printed information that tells us how to use a piece of equipment.
Discipline: Discipline is the Punishment give to correct a person or enforce obedience.
Motivation: Motivation is a factor that instigates an individual to act in a particular way in fact motivation factors are those things that make pupils to crate interest in a particular subject.
Research: Research is a formal, systematic and intensive process of carrying on a scientific method of analysis.
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