RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR TEACHING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR TEACHING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                     
Page
Title
Page………………………………………………….                     
Approval Page
……………………………………………                      
Certification……………………………………………….                     
Dedication………………………………………………….                     
Acknowledgement………………………..……………..…                     
Table of
contents…………………………………………..                     
Abstract……………………………………………………                       
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of
the study…………………………………                       
Statement of the
Problem……….………………………..                       
Purpose of the
Study…………………………………….                        
Significance of
the Study………………………………..                        
Scope of the
Study ………………………………………            
Research
Questions …………..………………………….                     
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
Definition of Agricultural Science Education ……………                         
  Teaching and Learning of Agricultural
Science ………..              
Types of Instructional
Resources                                                                
Importance and uses of instructional resources
………………             
Factors affecting the instructional resources
usage……………             
Problems militating against effective
use of agricultural             
 science
instructional resources ………………………………                
Empirical studies ……………………………………………                  
Summary of the literature reviewed ………………………..                  
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
Research
Design ……………………………………………                   
Area
of the Study …………………………………………..                  
Population
of the Study …………………………………….                  
Sample
of the Study ……………………….………………..                  
Description
of Instrument ……………………………………                
Validation
of the Instrument …………………………………               
Method
of Data Collection ……………………………………              
Techniques
of Data Analysis …………………………………              
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and Analysis
of Data
Results
…………………………..……………….…………..                   
Discussion
of Findings ………………………………………                
CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion and
Recommendations
Summary
… ….………..…………………………..…………                  
Conclusion
….……………………………………………….                  
Recommendations
…………………………………………..                  
REFERENCES ………………………………….…………                    
APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………            
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ABSTRACT
The
project was designed to find out resources available for teaching of
Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Ijero local government area of
Ekiti State. The population for the study comprised 50 Agricultural Science
teachers in ten secondary schools in the local government. Questionnaire was
the major instrument used for data collection to examine the resources
available for teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary schools and the
data was analysed with the use of mean deviation.  From the study, the result showed that the
resources for teaching Agricultural Science were not adequately available. The
result also showed that majority of the schools do not have Agricultural
Science laboratory and the few ones available were not well equipped. Based on
the result, the following recommendations were made; adequate provision should
be made for well-equipped Agricultural Science laboratory and library with
relevant textbooks, magazines and journals. Government should make fund
available for schools to purchase the needed resources or supply the
instructional resources to the school adequately. Also, the available
instructional resources should be properly managed to prevent wastage.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 Background of the Study
  Agriculture is the art and science of
cultivating the land and rearing of animals for the purpose of providing food
for man, feed for animals and raw materials for the manufacturing industries. Agriculture
is part of the culture of Nigerians this is because young people are informally
educated agriculturally as early as six years of age, which may be regarded as
a period of apprenticeship in the life of a Nigerian.
            Agriculture however, is covered basically
with husbandry of crops and animals for food and other purposes. It is the
foundation upon which the development of stable human communities such as
villages and towns depend in all parts of the world.
          Agriculture
has contributed much to the country’s economy, some of the importance of
agriculture are as follow:
       
i.           
It provides
essential commodities such as fibre and shelter which are vital for comfortable
living.
     
ii.           
It provides food
for individual workers and all other workers who do not engage in Agriculture
themselves.
   
iii.           
Agriculture
supplies most of the raw materials used in industries. Examples are cotton,
rubber, cocoa, groundnut and timber.
   
iv.           
Agriculture
provides market for industrial goods such as insecticides, fungicides and
fertilizer.
     
v.           
It serves as
foreign exchange earners for the country.
   
vi.           
It provides
employment opportunity for many categories of people. In Nigeria, about 65 –
80% of the populations are engaged in farming and related operation.
New
nation policy on Education (2002) includes Agricultural Science among the core
subjects to be taught in all secondary school. The policy also prescribed the
teaching of Practical Agricultural at J.S.S. level. The objective of the
natural curriculum for J.S.S. is to provide adequate orientation for the
integration of Agricultural Science with production work at school and to
prepare students for further activities in Agriculture.
Agricultural
Science Education was also introduced into Nigeria secondary schools so as to
provide students with adequate skills to make living and progressively advance
in farming.
          Advance
food production through improvement of Agricultural production technique
acquired by the students equip them well to be able to live effectively and
conveniently in the modem age science and technology.
The
curriculum further recommended that;
                                
i.           
Each student is guaranteed adequate
equipment, farm space, farm structure and regular, supply of fertilizer and
animal feeds
                              
ii.           
In addition to having a farm land, each
school should keep at least two types of farm animals.
                           
iii.           
Students’ achievement should be
continuously assessed through various forms of test and during field and
laboratory practical.
                            
iv.           
Individual assessment should be carried
out on activities in crop production, while group assessment should be
restricted to performance in animal production activities.
Agricultural
education is one of the vocational subjects in secondary setting. Education has
been defined as the process whereby desirable changes in human behavior are
produced within people. It can also be defined as the means of acquiring
knowledge attitude and belief. However, for teaching and learning to be
meaningful, adequate resources must be available. Teaching resources are all
the things used for effective learning to take place. The tools of the
teaching-learning process and they clarify, motivate, sustain, interest,
explain, enhance linage and positively change attitudes of the learners in the
right direction.
          Teaching
resource include materials, equipment, techniques, certain message and people
that are used to enhance the teaching process. Learning resource in education
can be divided into three; these are human, material and physical facilities.
Human resources are the teacher, learners, administrators, member of the
community, a vocational expert like curriculum planers and designers’
librarian, guidance counselors, education technologist and evaluators.
The
physical facilities are building and other environmental variables. The
building includes all the structures within the school environment like classroom,
offices library, workshop studio, laboratory, store and their auxiliary
structure, poultry and piggery
The
environment variable can be space the temperature lighting condition, the sand
and the beauty of the school environment. All these variables must be
adequately exhibited within any of the structure for effective teaching and
learning to take place.
Educationally,
these resources performs the following functions
          
i.           
They help to improve the research and
facilitate teaching learning process.
        
ii.           
They also bring the teachers and
students closer in a planned and controlled atmosphere for mutual benefits.
Agricultural science is a practical
oriented subject which cannot be taught in abstract, there is need for adequate
provision and utilization of teaching facilities for effective teaching and
learning of the subject. Nigeria as a developing nation is faced with the
problems of expansion of school population and scarcity of teachers.
Therefore to be able to cope with the
large number of students in the class and effective learning to take place in
the learners, the teacher needs instructional facilities that will assist
him/her in teaching.
The
instructional facilities should be available and adequate for the teacher use.
Statement of the Problem
In
schools, Agricultural Science as a practical or vocational subject is been
reviewed as a labour intensive subject where cutlasses and hoes are frequently
used for the cultivation of crops on the schools farm.
Despite
the fact that there are some facilities available for the teaching of
Agricultural Science in secondary schools and teachers are being trained by the
government to handle this subject at the Junior and Senior schools levels, yet
the resources available are not enough for effective teaching of Agricultural
Science in secondary schools. The major concern of this study is therefore to
examine resources available in the teaching of Agricultural Science in
Secondary School in Ijero Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
   The main purpose of this study is to
identify the available resource for the teaching of Agricultural Science in
secondary schools in Ijero Local Government Area of Ekiti State, specifically
the study seeks to;
             
i.           
Identify the resources available for the
teaching of agricultural science in secondary schools.
          
ii.           
Examine the utilization of the available
resources.
        
iii.           
Identify the problems that affect the
availability of the resources.
        
iv.           
Identify roles of the school authority
and government in the supply of the resources.
           
v.           
Suggest possible solution to the
problem.
Significance of the Study
          The
study is significant in a number of ways to students, teacher, community and
government. The students will benefit from this study in the sense that they
will be able to put what they learn theoretically into practice through the
resources available in the schools. The students interest and attitude will
increase towards practical agriculture as a result of adequate resources in the
schools.
Teachers will benefit from this study by
improving their teaching methods, educate them more on adopting other methods
of teaching and it will also help to improvise using locally available material
as teaching aids, thus reducing cost and increasing efficiency in the community.
Government will also understand some of their responsibility that can promote
practical agriculture for profitability in secondary schools.
The
study will also assess and recommend to government, teachers and students
possible ways of improving teaching and learning of agricultural science.
Scope of the Study
The
present economic situation nationwide posed a serious problem on this study,
consequently the project could not be very extensive and more elaborate due to
financial constraints. Distance and time also limited the researcher ­­­­­in
covering the entire secondary schools in Ijero local government area of Ekiti
State.
Research Questions
In
conducting this research, the following research questions were formulated to
guide the study.
                         
i.           
What resources are available for
teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in secondary schools?
                      
ii.           
How does the teacher of Agricultural
Science utilize the available resources?
                    
iii.           
What are the problems that affect the
availability of resources?
                    
iv.           
What are the roles of school authority
and government in the supply of the resources?
                       
v.           
What are the ways of solving the
identified problems?
 CHAPTER
TWO
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