PROCESSING OF CASSAVA INTO TWO DIFFERENT PRODUCTS (PUPURU AND GARRI)

INTRODUCTION
In
Nigeria, cassava production is well-developed as an organized agricultural
crop. It has well-established multiplication and processing techniques for food
products and cattle feed. There are more than 40 cassava varieties in use.
Planting occurs during four planting seasons in the various geo-ecological
zones.  Cassava is grown throughout the
year, making it preferable to the seasonal crops of yam, beans or peas. It
displays an exceptional ability to adapt to climate change, with a tolerance to
low soil fertility, resistance to drought conditions, pests and diseases, and
suitability to store its roots for long periods underground even after they
mature. Use of fertilizers is limited, and it is also grown on fallow lands.
Harvesting of the roots after planting varies from 6 months to 3 years. The
land holding for farming in Nigeria is between 0.5–2.5 hectares (1.2–6.2
acres), with about 90% of producers being small-scale farms. In order to
increase production, several varieties of cassava have been developed which are
pest resistant; production in the country is hampered with problems with green
mite, the cassava mealybug, and the variegated grasshopper.
Cassava,
which is rich in starch in the form of carbohydrate, has multiple uses. It is
consumed in many processed forms, in the industry and also as livestock feed.
Roots or leaves are made into flours. Flours are of three types, yellow garri,
white garri, or intermediate colour, with yellow garri considered the best
product in Nigeria. Its other products are as dry extraction of starch, glue or
adhesives, modified starch in pharmaceutical as dextrines, as processing
inputs, as industrial starch for drilling, and processed foods.
PROCESSING QUALITY
Processing
of cassava for food involves combinations of fermentation, drying, and cooking.
Fermentation is an important method common in most processings. While there are
many fermentation techniques for cassava, they can be broadly categorized into
solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation. Solid-state fermentation,
typified by garri production,
uses grated or sliced cassava pieces that are allowed to ferment while exposed
to the natural atmosphere or pressed in a bag. Submerged fermentation involves
the soaking of whole peeled, cut and peeled, or unpeeled cassava roots in water
for various periods, as typified by the production of fufu and lafun
in Nigeria. Traditionally, cassava is fermented for 4 to 6 days in order to
effect sufficient detoxification of the roots. Some processors, out of economic
pressure, ferment cassava for less than 2 days. Some cases of food poisoning
have been attributed to this practice. Application of biotechnology to
traditional cassava processing has prospects for producing safe and
well-detoxified products.
PROCESSING
OF CASSAVA INTO DIFFERENT PRODUCTS
There are many various methods of processing cassava
into different product, these are:
1.    
Processing of
cassava into pupuru
2.    
Processing of
cassava into garri
PROCESSING OF CASSAVA INTO PUPURU
          Cassava
tubers were obtained from a farm. The tubers were peeled. The tubers will be
soaked in water which will be fetched in container to enable the easy washing
of the cassava by the fifth or sixth day, and this requires abundant water for
cleaning. By the time it was washed, and the cassava will be fermented. After
fermentation, the water will be drained off by arranging in sacks or jute bags
to drain off the water. The sacks and bags are stored or a raised stony
platform with some logs place across to further compress the water from the
cassava for another four to five days, after which the fermented cassava is
moulded into balls ready for drying by the fire.
Text Box: CASSAVA TUBERFLOW
CHART OF PROCESSING PUPURU

 


 


PROCESSING OF CASSAVA INTO GARRI
To
make garri, cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce
a mash. The mash could be mixed with palm oil (oil garri) before being placed
in a porous bag. It is then placed in an adjustable press machine for 1–3 hours
to remove excess starchy water. When the cassava has become dry enough, it is
ready for the next step. It is then sieved and fried in a large clay frying pot
with or without palm oil. The resulting dry granular garri can be stored for
long periods. It may be pounded or ground to make a fine flour.
FLOW
CHART OF PROCESSING
Text Box: CASSAVA TUBERGARRI

 


 

 


REFERENCES
Adeniji, A. A., Ega, L. A., Akoroda, M. O.,
Adeniyi, A. A. and Ugwu; O. A. (2005). Cassava Development in Nigeria. Department of Agriculture Federal
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources Nigeria.
Odetokun, S. M.,
Aiyesanmi, A. F. and Esuoso, K. O. (1998). Enhancement
of the nutritive value of pupuru, a fermented cassava product. LaRivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse,
75: 155-158.
Okpokiri, A. O.,
Ijoma, B. C., Alozie, S. O. and Ejiofor, M. A. N. (1995). Production
of improved cassava fufu, Nigeria Food
Journal
, 3, 145-148.
Akindahunsi, A. A., Oboh, G. and Oshodi, A. A. (1999).
Effect of fermenting cassava with Rhizopus oryzae on
the chemical composition of its flour and gari. LaRivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 76: 437-440.
Akindimula, F. and Glatz, B. A. (1998). Growth and oil production of Apiotrichum curvatum in
tomato juice. Journal on Food Protection,
61: 1515-11517.
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