Title page
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Purpose of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Research Questions
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
Empirical Review of Literature
Research Design
Population and Sampling Procedure
Research Instrument
Validation and Reliability of the
Administration of Instrument
Data Analysis
Discussion of Findings
Suggestion for Further Research

Background of the Study
The nature
of man’s environment is one of the basic determinants of his state of health,
among other factors.
This implies
that the condition of man’s home, place of work and every other place he makes
use of has a direct relationship with his well being. Oredipe (1996) is of the opinion
that there is a natural relationship between man and his environment. According
to him, this is because the environment presents to man various opportunities
and at the same time various problems. The environment place limit or control
on the development of man. It also governs the course of man’s manipulation of
the environment. It will either make it easier or difficult for man to rest his
living of the environment. Gidado (2003) is of the opinion that man through his
intellectual capabilities tends to maximize his contact with and utilization of
environmental resources: man attempts to either constantly condition the
environment to suit his needs or to adjust himself to the environmental
(1998) stated that the apparent health problems in Nigerian society associated
with poor environmental sanitation have assumed noticeable dimensions that all
services thinkers would readily accept the need for constant appraisal of the
environmental with a view to finding workable solution for improvement. In the opinion
of Oredipe (1996), the environment is an aggregate of all conditions that
surrounds man at any point in space. For the early man, those conditions were
mainly mutual. They included such elements like climate, soil, vegetation and
the terrain.
(1994) suggests that the basic requirements for a health living are adequate
supply of safe water, provision for the hygienic disposal of waste, among
others. Generally, poor environmental sanitation will cause filthy environment
giving bad odours, causing awful scenes, harboring flies and germs and
ultimately encouraging outbreaks of epidemics (Gidado, 2003).
Funke (2001)
is of a good school is the availability of a healthy environment including
clean toilets, classrooms, libraries, play fields, among others. Idowu (1996)
states that sparkling clean toilets is an essential environmental component of
any “good” schools. Similarly, Akinseinde (1999) has identified that the school
environment has to be neat with neatly cut paths and flowers spacious and clean
classrooms and toilets. It is however regrettable to observe that the problem
of environmental abuse, which has become characteristics of Akoko in recent
years, is gradually finding its way into our primary and secondary schools
especially those without security fence in the cities. Apart from this some
members of the school community especially the learners (pupils and students)
are often found of the habit of littering the ground with pieces of papers,
biscuit wrappers, sachets of water, among others.
In some
instance, students are often found defecating and urinating indiscriminately in
the school compound either as a result of non-availability or inadequacy of
toilets facilities.
This, at
first, results in land pollution and later, air pollution. Thus, the members of
the school community run the risk of the breakdown of epidemics. According to
Adegoke (2000), rubbish in the form of papers, human waste and other solids is
unpleasant to look and it can spread diseases fast. Similarly, Gidado (2003)
has stated that, more than any other things, waste degrade the quality of our
environment, it constitutes health hazards. Epidemics of Cholera, Dysentary and
Diarrhea in some cities and towns such as Lagos
and Ibadan can
be traced to the pollution of the land Oredipe, (1996). Similarly, the
aesthetic beauty of the environment is destroyed.
The problem
of land pollution in the school community common in schools where there are no
dustbins, incinerators, etc for waste collection.
However, the
situation may also arise where pupils are not well informed on the need to
dispose their wastes properly and hygienically. Similarly, learners can also
resort to polluting the land with wastes such as papers, nylons etc where
dustbins are/or incinerators are not accessible or too for from their classes.
In such situations, children may ‘cleverly” dump wastes anywhere provided they
are not caught.
the attendant effect of land pollution in the school system such as the
breakdown of epidemics such as cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, pupils will
consequently fall sick and thus unable to come to school. The importance of
education to national growth and development can be underrated. Then this
implies that our educational aims and goals may not be achieved to the desired
level as a result of learners’ and teachers’ ill-health resulting from
environmental abuse. Considering the adage “Health is wealth”, it becomes
imperative to carry out a comprehensive study of the problems militating
against effective environmental sanitation exercise in primary schools in Akoko
Local Government Area of Ondo State.
Purpose of the Study
The need to
undertake a comprehensive study of the school environment and consequently
problems militating against effective environmental sanitation in our
educational institutions cannot be over-emphasized.
This study is designed to:
a critical analysis of the environmental health problems of primary schools in
Akoko local government area of Ondo
out an investigation into the problems inhibiting effective environmental
sanitation in primary schools in Akoko local government area of Ondo State.
out an analysis of the various ways through which wastes are generated in the primary
school system.
the method(s) employed by school authorities at ensuring that wastes are well
and hygienically disposed and to ensure that the school environment is neat at
all times.
Statement of the Problem
The state of environmental hygiene of
a school system is a vital aspect of the school that cannot be overemphasized.
This is because, the state of hygiene of a school has a direct relationship
with the state of health of members of such school community and consequently
the level of effectiveness of the school programme of activities. This implies
that a school with a hygienic environmental health is more likely to be
successful in the task of facilitating the achievement of the school’s aims and
goals. This calls for a more serious attention to be paid to the environmental
health condition and consequently sanitation methods and problems in our
The abuse of the school environment,
especially land as a result of inadequacy or at times, non availability of
toilet facilities as well as wastes collection materials such as dustbins,
incinerators, etc is risky, health wise. If this is not controlled, it could
result in reducing the school’s “educational output” in terms of learner’s
achievement. It is obvious that in a school where pupils defecate and urinate
indiscriminately because of non-availability of toilet facilities or ignorance,
the attendant effect is the breakdown of epidemics arising from air and land
pollution. This will consequently affect adversely teachers’ productivity and
pupils’ ability to learn. In order to reduce the problem of the breakdown of
epidemics in our schools, it is imperative to identify the problems militating
against effective environmental sanitation in these schools and consequently
suggest ways of averting epidemics arising from environmental abuse in the
school system. This is the focus of this research study. The research study
attempts to investigate the inhibiting problems of effective environmental
sanitation in our school in Ondo state taking some schools in Akoko Local
Government Area of Ondo State as a case study. In other words, this research
study is geared at studying the problems militating against effective
environmental sanitation exercise in selected schools in Akoko Local Government
Area of Onso State.
Research Questions
For the purpose of this study, the
following questions are raised and will be addressed vis-à-vis data gathered
from responses to the items on the questionnaire. 
Research Question One: How often is
environmental sanitation carried out in school?
Research Question Two: Are there
enough toilet facilities and good drainage systems in our schools?
Research Question Three: Are there
essential facilities needed for environmental sanitation in our schools
Research Question four: whose
responsibility is to cart away refuse generated in our primary schools?
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited by the problem
of poor record keeping culture, which has become a way of life in any public
establishment in Nigeria
including the primary schools. Consequently information relating to wastes
generation and disposal in primary schools are often not regarded as vital
records and thus not kept as an essential part of the information a primary
school should have.
Nevertheless, the researcher will do
everything possible to endure that this poor record keeping culture have little
or no effect on the overall findings.
Definition of the Terms
The nature of concepts and terms used
in this study is defined below to reduce ambiguities. The terms are interpreted
as follows.
Environment: This refers to schools (primary) and
their immediate surroundings in terms of land space and air. It includes the
degree of cleanliness or otherwise of the primary schools and their land space
including the degree of ‘pureness’ of the air.
Health Problems: This refers to adverse state of
health that could result consequent upon poor management of wastes generated in
the school system. Such wastes, defending on its nature, could result in land
and air pollution and this consequently result in the breakdown of air-borne
diseases and other such disease that could threaten man’s well being.
Primary Schools: This is used to refer to educational
institutions meant for children aged six to eleven plus. They are attached
prior to attending the secondary school.
Problems: This is the term used to refer to a
collection of inhibiting factors that prevent effective environmental
sanitation in our primary schools.
Epidemics: This refers to diseases arising from
environmental abuse in the primary school system. Such diseases may among
others include dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, and respiratory disorders.
Wastes: The refers to both solid and liquid
materials that are generated in the schools but not needed. Solid wastes may
include pieces of papers, torn footwears, and uniform of pupils, torn cardboard
etc. similarly, solid wastes include faces that could be generated either by
the pupils or members of staff. Liquid waste primarily include urine and other
liquid arising from science practical.
Pollution: This is an undesirable change in the
physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the environment that may be
harmful to members of a community such as the schools.




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