PROBLEM MILITATING AGAINST THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER EDUCATION TO THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Computer
education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this
premise that the government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in
the education system from primary through to tertiary institutions. The
Ministry of Education stipulates that schools should offer technical and
vocational subjects to students. At secondary school, a student should enroll
for two technical/vocational subjects among which is Computer Studies. It’s
against this background that the government went   about distributing
computer assessories to schools across the country. Complementing these
efforts, private companies donated and distributed computers to various schools
at the state and federal levels. Despite such efforts, analysis carried out
shows that the majority of schools are not offering the subject (Jegede, 2003).
This has been the situation prevailing even in the schools which received the
donations of computer packages. This, therefore, has prompted this current
study to find out why computer studies are not being undertaken in the majority
of schools despite the significance of the subject to national development and
in the face of support from the political and corporate leaderships.
Education systems around the world face formidable challenges
that are taxing conventional strategies. Fresh approaches are needed to address
persistent problems of the past and provide students with an education
appropriate to the needs of a modern, information based global economy. Now,
after more than two decades of unfulfilled promises to revolutionize education,
computer and communication technologies are finally able to offer opportunities
to significantly improve teaching and learning. Aduwa, 2005
In any educational system, the level of available resources
places a restriction on the degree to which any new subject can be introduced
into the school curriculum, especially where only the most basic facilities
have so far been provided. But ICT is of such importance to the future
industrial and commercial health of a country that investment in the equipment,
teacher education, and support services necessary for the effective delivery of
an ICT-based curriculum should rank high in any set of government priorities.
The curriculum proposed takes account of these resource issues and specifies
minimum requirements for effective delivery in different circumstances (UNESCO,
2004).
 Reasonable computer
studies are yet to start in Nigerian secondary schools, the computer-student
ratio is small, funding by government has not been encouraging, computer
education syllabus is unpopular among students and parents and thus hardly
implemented, and teachers are inadequate to implement computer education
(Jegede & Adelodun, 2003). Teachers in Nigerian secondary schools cannot
implement computer education because majority of the teachers are not competent
in basic computer operation and in the use of simple application software
(Yusuf, 2005b).
Teachers require access to information and communication
technology (ICT) infrastructure for a number of reasons. These include their
need to live as citizens in a world undergoing rapid and major transformations
as a result of increased use of ICT, their need to embed ICT use in their teaching
and administrative duties and, increasingly, their need to use ICT in their
professional studies (Burnip, 2006). One of the millennium development goals of
the Nigerian nation in the education industry is that schools (ICT) compliant.
In response to this goal, government procured and distributed computers to
schools. Those computers are now stored in principals’ offices unused in our
schools nationwide. Mkpa (2007), has confirmed this in our secondary schools.
In the wake of this, computer education and ICT compliance cannot be achieved.
According to a study by Bukaliya and Mubika (2011), the qualifications of the
majority of the teachers are farfrom being satisfactory due to lack of exposure
to college curriculum that does not cater for ICT training. The teachers have
poor practical skills in ICT usage since the majority of them could not even
use the basic software in computers for the delivery of their lessons and
indications are that the teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge of
computers in basic software usage. Studies by Ya`acob et al (2005) and so and
Swatman (2006) on teachers` readiness for ICT generally, suggest that there is
still a long way to go before schools can embrace on modern technology.
Due to the existing constraints in computer education
implementation, remedial action needs to be taken. Lauand Sim (2008) propose
the need to put in place measures to ensure that adequate access to technical
support is provided. Lau and Sim (2008) established that teachers needed
training which should be offered on a continuous, rather than a one off basis
so that their computer knowledge is upgraded over time.
Computer is defined as an electronic
device capable of performing a wide range of complex calculation at a very high
speed. It can add, divided, subtract ad multiply. It can also be used for word
processing and generation of report, memorandum as well as other operations
that make life easier for man. Mkpa, (2007).
The computer developed just over four
decades ago, has almost becomes inevitise in many countries, states, town,
school even in an individual homes. Today, there are some places where one will
find it difficult to operate without the knowledge of computer.
Computer not only dominates
international communication and information but also has taken over almost all
transactions in offices, homes and schools. No wonder this age has been described
as “Age of information”. This implies that by the end of this century,
four-sixth of us will be information workers and not manual workers Mkpa,.
(2007).. Our jobs will be of process information and pass along to others, the
result of the processing. The emphasis will be on production of information,
storage and distribution of information in various forms.
All categories of workers such as lawyers,
accountants, journalists, e.t.c. will be ineffective without the knowledge of
computer. Nigeria like any other third world countries is taking up the
challenge to meet the requirement of this technological development by
embarking on computer literacy programmes.
The introduction of computer connotes
that students at all level of education must be aware of  this new and modern tool so that they can
appreciate it, use it, understand how it works and learn how to apply it to
solve their everyday problems. (Jone 1986). For the fact that the educational
standard of any nation start from primary and secondary levels, it will be
necessary for computer literacy programme to be integrated into the primary and
secondary school curricula in order to achieve the lofty goal of computer
literacy in our country, Nigeria.
Cost has been reported as
one of the factors which influence provision and use of ICT services (Adomi,
2010). The cost of computers is too high for many schools  to afford. Monthly Internet rates are
exorbitant and the charges for satellite television are unaffordable for most
people in Africa (Brakel and Chiseuga, 2003). This has made it difficult for
Nigerian secondary schools to acquire and install ICT facilities for the use of
teachers and students. Therefore for full implementation of computer education,
government should be ready to provide ICT facilities to schools. Problem facing
Nigeria and its ICT programmed is lack of workforce training (Goshit, 2006).
Teaching as a profession in Nigeria is considered to be for poor people,
therefore the few professional that are available prefer to work in companies
and industries where they can earn better salaries. With this deplorable
condition, teachers are not motivated to go the extra mile in assisting the
students to acquire computer education (Oduroye, 2001).
Adequate timing is also
required in the teaching and learning of computer. Therefore introduction of
computer education demand time. For computer education to be fully implemented,
teachers  should be given adequate time
to go for training. Because they can only teach computer subject when they are
fully trained.
Statement of Problem
In view of
the fact that students  from both
secondary and tertiary institution are immediate sources of manpower for
industry and commerce, it is hoped that ICT literacy could have been taught to
students in preparation for employment. However, this has not been the case for
the majority of secondary school and tertiary institution. Most of the graduates
who have gone out seeking for job also lack basic knowledge of computers
despite being a prerequisite for employment in many organisations.
Some of the
problem militating against the introduction computer education in secondary
schools are lack of physical facilities, lack of  adequate fund from government, lack of competent
computer teachers. Even schools where computers exist, the students could not
operate it due to the fact that they were been taught theoretical aspect from
textbooks and not together with practical due to the fact that the teachers
could not operate the computers and inadequate power supply. In view of this,
the study intent to examine the problems militating against the introduction of
computer education to the secondary school in Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
The
main purpose of this study is to examine the problem militating against the
introduction of computer education to the secondary schools in Ido/Osi Local Ekiti
State.  
Specifically, the study examined availability of
computer resources in the schools, availability of trained manpower in teaching
computer education in school, the attitude of the school community towards the
teaching and learning of computers in schools, adequacy of time for computer
lessons on the
timetable and remedies to make sure computer
education is fully
implemented in schools.
Research Questions
The
following research questions were raised to guide this study:
1.     Are computer resources available in the schools?
2.     Do you have trained manpower to teach computer  science in the schools?
3.     What is the attitude of the school community towards the teaching
and learning of computers in schools?
4.     Is time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on
the timetable?
5.     Are there enough fund to finance the introduction of computer in
the schools?
6.     Are there enough physical facilities for computer teaching and
learning?
7.     What remedies can be put in place to make sure computer education
is fully implemented in schools?



Significance of the Study
The
study will be of greater benefits to students, school management, parents and
the society at large.
          It would enable the student to
understand problems militating against introduction of computer into secondary
schools. This study would unveiled to government problem militating against the
introduction of computer education in secondary schools. It would also unveiled
to school management the effects of inadequate school facilities, inadequate
funding  and problem of incompetent
computer teachers to the introduction of computer education in secondary school
in Ekiti State.
          The study would also contribute to
existing knowledge and serve as a guide to students who may want to carry out
research on similar research topic.
Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study was basically
on the problems militating against the introduction of computer education in
secondary schools.
In order to keep the study within
reasonable scope and time factor, the study was delimited to some selected
secondary schools in the Ido/Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The
study considered a limited factors that could militate against the introduction
of computer education in the secondary schools in Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
Computer: Is defined as an electronic device
which under, a stored program, accepts data, process them and produce the
result of the processing.
Computer education: Is the process of learning or teaching about computers.
Hardware: This is the physical parts of the machine, which include the
mechanical, and the electrical component of the Computer such as input and
output devices, the CPU e.t.c.
Software:   Is
the programme that enables the computer to carry out operation as it has been
instructed.
Memory:    The
Internal hardware in the computer that stores information for further use.
ROM (Real Only Memory): Is the type of memory that holds
information permanently.
RAM (Random Access Memory): It is the type of memory in which
information can only be written and read. It holds information temporarily.
Password:  Is
a set of characters used as a file name known only by the creator for security
purpose.
Basic:         An
acronym for beginner’s all purpose symbolic instruction code. A high level
language for beginner.
Data: Any
kind of information composed of letters, number symbol e.t.c. which can be
processed by a computer.



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