PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH INADEQUATE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECT

PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH INADEQUATE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECT 
ABSTRACT
This study investigated
the problem associated with the use of instructional materials in the teaching
and learning of Business subjects in secondary schools in ilaje local government area of ondo state  
  The
study adopted a descriptive research design. The sample size of one hundred and
fifty (150) respondents were used for the study using random sampling
technique. The respondents were drawn from five (5) secondary schools in Ilaje
local government. The instrument for data collection for the study was a closed
ended questionnaire. Percentages were used to answer the research questions of
the study. The study revealed that instructional materials had impact on the
teaching and learning process of  business studies  and also on their academic performance. Hence,
the researcher concluded that there is need for availability of instructional
materials for the teaching and learning of  business studies in the secondary schools. The
available instructional materials were not adequate for the students to learn.There
were problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during
business studies teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo
State. Instructional materials have impact on the attitude of  business studies students towards the
teaching and learning. The researcher recommended that the government to ensure
adequate provision of funds to schools in order to expand thel facilities most
especially the rural areas. Business studies  teachers must make use of instructional
materials frequently so as to bring taught closer to their student. Also,
teachers should be ready to improvise some of the needed materials for the
teaching of  business subject ,
particularly  business studies. The
parent teacher association must be ready to give helping hands to the
government in the provision of materials for the teaching of  business subject in secondary schools. Also
textbooks on business studies should be provided for the student by each of the
parents.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0     Background
of the study
Teaching
at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of stimulation
such as the use of instructional materials like; Education radio, charts, chalkboards,
maps, film strips and realia materials.
Adekunle
(2008) noted that teaching resources in  business subjects means anything that can
assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are
given the chance to learn through more sense than one, they can learn faster.
The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and
compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to
learn more. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical
difficulties that will have hindered his effective presentation of a given
topic. Larson (2001) quoted Lane who noted that the use of electronically
mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face- to-face classroom has
resulted in a shift from teacher –to student- centered classes. In this
situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The
teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and
companion in learning. The use of an instructional material does not only
encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in
more cooperative learning activities among the students.
          Ikerionwu (2000) referred to
instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make
learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them
into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and
audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically
operated materials. Social studies is a subject that depends in the use of a
number of resources. Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as
textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these
resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful social
studies teaching and learning situation.
          The
purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by
improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and
materials present support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen
and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders,
video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over head
projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, film strips, maps, charts,
graphs, offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination
to meet different teaching and learning experiences
Nanassely (2001) argues that Business
studies  is that aspect of total
education programme that provides knowledge, skills attitudes and understanding
needed to perform in the business world, as producer or consumer of goods and
service that business offers. It is note worthy that Business studies  involves teaching in various level of
education which include secondary schools and higher education, approximately
38% of student enroll in one or more business courses during their secondary
school programme.
Business studies  include virtually all the knowledge  which hold prospect of gainful exploration in
the context of business enterprises such knowledge could purely be administered
or even extent to the realm of the humanities, it can then be concluded that Business
studies  in secondary school prepares the
student to entrepreneur.
Teaching at any level
requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle
(2008) in Dr. (Mrs.) E. O. Okobia (2011) noted that teaching resources means
anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When
the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they
can learn faster and easier.
According to Nwafor.
C.E. and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials that are
used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate
ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time. The
learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful.
This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, I forget, I see, I remember,
and I do, I understand.
The use of
instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling
platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more.
Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that
could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
Larson (2001) quoted
Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to
duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shift from
teacher- to student-centred classes. In this situation the responsibility for
learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by
acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of
instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and students to work
collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among
the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or
devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners.
Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials, made up
of reading and non-reading materials and audio-visual materials comprising
electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Business studies
 is a subject that depends on the use of
a number of resources.
Osakwe and Itedjere
(1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human
resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or
collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning situation. The purpose of
instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the
quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials
present, support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and
Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders,
video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over-head
projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrips, maps, chart,
graphs and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in
combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences.
Other investigators
including Jimoh (2009), Yeager (2000), Nwanyanwu (1999), Bozimo (1992) and
Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional
materials and resources in the effective delivery of Business studies  lessons in secondary schools. These views have
been corroborated by international investigators including Bolick, Berson,
Coutts and Heinecke (2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011). Bolick,
Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are
fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching
and learning, other teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to
teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of
instructional materials and resources in Business studies  teaching and learning has been very
challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garuba (2003),
the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and
learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set up. And even
in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while
virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne
water and electricity.
Instructional materials
are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to
students in the educational process (Bradley et al. 2005). Among these items
are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides,
transparencies and many more. The use of instructional materials in secondary
schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits
of using them are immense. The integration of instructional materials in
classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by
fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore,
according to Mateer et al. (2012) the use of relevant instructional media in
the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of
knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the
relevance of many concepts taught.
 Community institutions, people and
businesses are a rich reservoir of instructional materials for Business studies
 teachers because such materials can be
sourced from local magazines, newspapers, government publications or the
internet with minimum expenditure of time, energy and money. Business documents
such as source documents (in Accounting), financial reports, bank withdrawal
and deposit slips, consumer protection pamphlets and many more can be gathered
from the business community for use in collaborative classroom activities.
Today, free internet teaching resources have become a very important tool to
impart education. Many government and private organisations have created
internet-enabled free teaching resource materials that can be accessed anywhere
by both teachers and students (Borrington 2004). The use of community resources
in teaching can make students appreciate the local and international relevance
of what they learn in school while affording them the opportunity to apply
Business studies  theory in context. This is supported by Chew
(2008), who, in her study on the development of localised instructional
materialsin Hong Kong, came to the conclusion that teaching and learning in
business education could be enhanced to a great extent by using instructional
resources based on local contexts, because such resources would be more
authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
This study therefore
aims to study the problems associated with inadequare use of instructional
material in teaching Business studies  in
————————-local government area of——–state
Statement
of the Problem
 Since
the inception of the National Junior Secondary School Business studies  Curriculum in Nigeria, few studies have been
devoted to evaluating the availability and utilization of instructional
materials and resources in the teaching of Business studies  in the Junior Secondary Schools of Nigeria. At
the threshold of the new millennium, Business studies  teachers face both old and new challenges and
need to evolve strategies to engage learners in activities that are active,
meaningful and challenging.
It has been said that
instructional materials has objects or devices which help the teacher to make
learning meaningful to the learners. According to Bradley et al. (2005),
instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to
impart information to students in the educational process. Also, according Chew
(2008), teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced to a
great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts, because
such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
Therefore these have
brought to recognition the essentiality of instructional materials in teaching
and learning of Business studies , hence this research work is designed to
examine the  problems associated with
inadequate use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of Business
studies  in ilaje local government area of Ondo state

1.3   Purpose of the Study
     The main purpose of this study is to
investigate the Problem  associated with
inadequate use of instructional material in teaching Business studies  
Specifically, this study sought to:
1.    
Investigate
the availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Business
studies   in
the secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
2.    
Determine
how often Business studies   teachers use instructional materials to teach Business
studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
3.    
Investigate
the reason why instructional materials are not effectively used during Business
studies   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State.
4.    
To
determine the impact of instructional materials on the attitude of Business
studies   students towards the teaching and learning of Business
studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4     Significance of the Study
This study which is
concerned with investigating the problem associatd with inadequate use of
instructional material in the teaching and learning of business subjects in
Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State is bound to be of immense benefits to
students, teachers, school authorities, curriculum planner, educational
stakeholders and Ministries of Education at different level of government.
 The finding from this study will be of immense
benefit because it will enhance the learning processes of the students and
thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase
the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make
learning more interesting.
Also, the result from
this study will help to re-emphasis the need for Business studies   teachers of secondary schools on importance of
making the use of instructional materials a factor to be considered in promoting
teaching and learning of Business studies  . And this in no small measure provides a
basis that compliments and supports the use of teaching skills and enhances
effectiveness.
The findings will
further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the
importance or otherwise of the impact of instructional materials in teaching
and learning of Business studies   in
secondary schools.
Furthermore,
finding from this study has much significance on the ministries of education at
all government level in Nigeria. This is because it will serve as a source of
information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials
to teaching and learning of Business studies   is one of the problems leading to poor
academic performance in the subject.
1.5     Scope of the Study
The
study will be delimited to investigate the the problem associatd with
inadequate use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of
business subjects. The study will cover all the Business studies   students in five (5) secondary schools within
Ilaje Local Government.
1.6     Research Questions
          The
following research questions are to guide this study:
1.    
Are
instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Business
studies   in
the secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
2.    
How often
do Business studies   teachers use instructional materials to teach Business
studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
3.    
What are
the problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during Business
studies   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State?
4.    
Do
instructional materials have impact on the attitude of Business studies   students towards the teaching and learning of Business
studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
 1.7     Operational
Definition of Terms
Academic performance: Is defined as successful completion,
through effort, of the acquisition of academic content and skills mostly determined
by the grades or scores that the student gets in a test.
Effective
learning
– is learning which develops understanding of learning in
the changing world. Effective learning involves individuals moving beyond
making connections of new ideas to old ones into restructuring their thinking
radically by changing the connections among the things they already know or
even discard some long-held beliefs about the world.
Learning
is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviours,
skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of
information.
Teaching:
Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge
and experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more
generally, the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual
growth of students by teachers.
Assumptions
of the study
          The
researcher assumes that there is lack of use of instructional material in
teaching of Business studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje local government area of Ondo State. Also, the
researcher assumed that if instructional materials are properly used in
teaching and learning of Business studies   in
secondary schools in Ilaje local government area of Ondo State, the academic
performance of the students will become better and improved.
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