PREVALENCE OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AMONG EKITI STATE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Background to the Study
Antisocial behavior among youth is a major national concern; and about one out of every three students drop-out of school. Factors related to antisocial behavior are reviewed, with emphasis placed on their prevalence in the school. Suggestions are provided as to what educators can do to prevent, rather than foster, antisocial behavior and dropouts. Antisocial behavior by our youth presents a major concern to everyone. Though rates of crime are dropping overall, reports show that young children are increasingly involved in deadlier crime, such as murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault (Snyder & Sickmund, 2005; Butts & Snyder, 2007). More juveniles are locked up in secure detention centers, training schools, jails, and prisons than ever before (partially because many states are now emphasizing longer and more punitive sanctions rather than treatment or prevention) (Puritz & Shang, 2008). Ingersoll and LeBoeuf (2007) also have noted that there have been increases in student suspensions and expulsions.
Antisocial behavior is defined here as “recurrent violations of socially prescribed patterns of behavior” (Simcha-Fagen, 2007), usually involving aggression, vandalism, rule infractions, defiance of adult authority, and violation of the social norms and mores of society. Youngsters who exhibit chronic patterns of antisocial behaviors frequently are diagnosed by clinicians as having oppositional or conduct disorders (Home & Sayger, 2000; Kazdin, 1987).
Antisocial behaviours are often exhibited by secondary school students because majority of them are adolescents who want to risk behaviours like sexual activities, smoking, stealing, bullying, examination malpractice, abortion, rape, cultism, loitering, lateness and rudeness. These behaviours are inimical to the students and those in their environment. Furthermore. Kimberly and Jacob (2002) defined antisocial behaviour as any act that imposes physical or psychological harm on other people or their property. According to them, lying, stealing, assaulting others, being cruel to others and being sexually promiscuous are all examples of antisocial behaviour. Also, such behaviours may sometimes constitute a violation of legal codes, and it is often accomplished by disturbances of thought of emotion.
Clare (2006) defined antisocial behaviours as destructive acts characterized by covert and overt hostility and intentional aggression towards others. According to him, high risk factors in the family setting can cause antisocial behaviour in the child. These factors include:- parental history of antisocial behaviours, parental alcohol and drug abuse, chaotic and unstable home life, absence of good parenting skills, use of coercive and corporal punishment, parental disruption due to divorce, death or other separation, parental psychiatric disorders, especially maternal depression and economic distress due to poverty and unemployment. Other causes of antisocial behaviours are – heavy exposure to media violence through television, movies, internet, video games and cartoons (Clare, 2006). He posited that engaging in antisocial behaviours poses great risk to an individual’s mental and physical health. It puts one at increased risk for alcoholism, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, high risk of sexual behaviour, depression and engaging in violent acts towards others and self. In other words, the high risks of interpersonal and intra-personal implications of antisocial behaviours are readily apparent.
Antisocial behaviour, personality disorder or conduct disorder, a term synonymous with delinquency was defined by Wachikwu and Ibegbunam (2012) as crimes committed by young people below the age of eighteen years usually characterized by violation of existing social norms and values. It was defined by Mayer (2001) as a recurrent violation of socially prescribed patterns of behaviour usually involving aggression, vandalism, rule infractions, defiance of authority and violation of social norms. Similarly, antisocial behaviour was defined by Hanrahan (2006) as a disruptive act characterized by covert or overt hostility and intentional aggression towards others. It refers to an overall lack of adherence to the social norms and standards that allow members of a society to coexist peacefully.
People with antisocial personalities have a low tolerance for frustration. They act on impulse, lose their temper quickly, and lie easily and skillfully, in childhood, they are often bullies who fight lie, cheat, steal, and are truant from school. They blame others for their misdeeds, feel Picked out by their parents and teachers, and never seem to learn from their mistakes. It against this background this study intend to investigate prevalence of antisocial behaviors among Ekiti State senior secondary schools students.
Statement of the Problem
Antisocial behavior among student cannot be overemphasized, antisocial behaviour in children occur as a result of various problems namely; lack of education, drug or substance misuses, poverty, peer pressures, broken homes, unemployment, lack of parental guidance, migration, exploitation, violence and abuse. It is a common knowledge that students exhibit some antisocial behavior such as stealing, smoking, risky sexual behavious and examination malpractice as a result of personal factors, peer influence, negative attitude of members of the society and lack of parental care. This antisocial behaviour are very inimical to their success in life and the progress of their society as a whole. These unhealthy behaviours of students, has negative impact on students’ academic performance make the researcher to ask why students are not concern about the current trend on their academic performance” could it be that they are insensitive to the antisocial behavior. It is in view of these concerns that this study examine the prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Senior Secondary students.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Senior Secondary School Students. The specific objective of the study are;
- To examine causes of antisocial behaviours among senior secondary school students in Ekiti State
- To examine ways by which home factors have contributed to the causes and prevalence of antisocial behaviours among Ekiti State senior secondary schools
- To examine how economic status of families influence the prevalence of anitisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students.
- To examine how school variable influence the prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students.
The following research questions were raised to guide the study
- What are the causes of antisocial behaviours among senior secondary school students in Ekiti State
- Are there ways by which home factors have contributed to the causes and prevalence of antisocial behaviours among Ekiti State senior secondary schools
- Does economic status of families influence the prevalence of anitisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students?
- Does school variable influence the prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students?
The following research hypotheses were raised for this study
- There is no significant relationship between home factors and prevalence of antisocial behaviours among Ekiti State senior secondary schools
- There is no significant relationship between economic status of families influence and prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students.
- There is no significant relationship between school variable influence and prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Secondary School Students.
Significance of the Study
The study was carried out to examine prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Senior secondary school Students. The study would be of great benefit to both school counselors, parent, students and government because it will enable them to know the causes, effect consequence of antisocial behavior on students. The recommendations made would help serve as guide to prevent antisocial behavior among students in Ekiti State.
The study would also serve as a guide for researcher who may want to carry out research on a similar topic and add to existing literature.
Scope of the Study
The study cover the prevalence of antisocial behavior among Ekiti State Senior secondary school students. The scope of the study would however cover only five secondary school in Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
Antisocial behavior:- Antisocial behaviours is any sort of behavior that goes against the norms that society has placed. Many different types of extreme antisocial behavior have been document and observed among school children including aggression to those around them, cruelty, violence, scam, theft, arson, and vandalism, drug and achohol abuse, manipulation etc.
Economic status:- is an economic and social logical combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relations to others, based on income, education and occupation.
Drug Abuse:- is continued misuse of drugs even when faced with drug related job, legal health, or family difficulties. Drug addiction is long term, compulsive drug use. The person may attempt to stop using drug but repeatedly return to drug use despite physical emotional or social harm.
Heavy Exposure: This is a state of having no protection from something very harmful.