Title page                                                                              
Table of Contents                                                                
Statement of the Problems                                                     
Objectives of the study                                                          
Justification of the study                                                                  
Basic Assumption                                                                           
Research Methodology                                                           
Scope and Limitations to the study                                        
Limitation to the study                                                          
Definition of Terms                                                               
Organization of the Chapters                                                
Literature Review                                                                             
An over view of Political violence
and Democratic Stability
In contemporary Nigeria                                                                  
VIOLENCE AND STABILITY                                                       
The Remote causes of Ijor/Ilaje
Consequences of Ijor/Ilaje Violence
and Stability                   


Political violence and Democratic
stability is an endemic feature of most of the developing political
system.  This has become the been of
African politics where political violence and Democratic stability has become
an essential part of the political system since independence (Anifowose 1983:31).
Political violence and Democratic
stability has become an essential and important characteristics of the Nigeria scene since the advent of party politics
in Nigeria.  A lot of steps and measures have being taking
by various gotherment to put an end to this malasics, all the no avail.  The elite now use it as a tool of to attain
political power and a means of negotiation for the positions or the national
cake, a behaviour which has brought the level of poverty so high in the Nigeria state.
According to Omosele S.O. (2001:4) in
recent time, Nigeria
has acquired the possible distinction of a country where government has been
reduced to crises management and crises mismanagement.  No other identity can be used to describe Nigeria
accurately more than crises (Omosele, 2001:4).
The seed of political crises or violence
and Democratic stability has started germinating in Nigeria with the amalgamation of
the Northern and Southern protectorate on 1914 which was designed for
administrative convenience and economic exploration.  Nigeria, a country of many nations,
from 250 mentioned by the colourialist and even hals that number by superficial
observers, to the figure of 374 ethnic groups which was found from an up-dated research
(Otite 1990:18).  These ethnic groups have
been wallowing in series of political violence and Democratic stability.
The peculiar situation of Ijor/Ilaje
communities.  The violence and stability
that erupted on the 19th of September, 1998 witnessed massive destruction of
resources in alarming proportion and the relic is still unbearable to the
people living within the geopolitical environment to be move recent, the O.P.C.
Ijor/(Ajegunle) massacre, the mile twelve saga, Ijor/Urobo, Ife-Modakeke,
Ijor/Itsakiri, to mention just a few when one considers the level or extent of
these crises, one will be forced to ask if at all we are from the same
country.  It therefore becomes necessary
to investigation.  Whether these people
have any cultural similarities whether these people have been living together
only recently, the cause of the violence and stability therefore deserves a
closer examination.
Statement of the Problem
Political violence and Democratic
stability is traceable to developing political system.
This is particularly true of
political societies including Nigeria
where political violence and stability has become an essential part of the
political system since independence (Anifowose 1982:31).  The Ijor/Ilaje crises which started on the 19th
of September 1998 at Akpata a lot tactors lead to the violence and Democratic
stability in Ijor/Ilaje ranging from political hegemony, religious factors,
scramble for oil villages, boundary adjustment problem tenancy and cultural
narcism and ethnic differences.
In an attempt to restore order over
this warrisome situation it is therefore incumbent on us to strengthen our
research in identifying the cause of the crisis, with a view to avoid it in
The Ijor/Ilaje crisis which started
Akpata involved physical display of war machineries like, Guns, the use of
locally made bombs and other sophisticated war equipments are a big threat to
democracy in Nigeria.
Alleged the god of water was unhappy
and annoyed because the water was coloured with blood.
Finally when we remember that this
people have being co-existing for about a century, we all appreciate the need
to finding a means to and the crisis. 
This is what this research work is all about.
Objectives of the study
The aims and objective of these study
are as follows:
To investigate the remote and
immediate cause of Ijor/Ilaje political crisis.
To examine the effect of violence on
the political system.
To make recommendation that can help
in preventing a future occurrence of the crisis.
Justification of the study
The study is to justify that the
Ijor/Ilaje crisis was perhaps one of the most terrible of political violence
that treathing the peaceful co-existence of the country event witnessed in Nigeria outside
the cold war of 1969 – 1970. This is because the quality and quantity of lives
and property lost was enormous and has greatly undermined national development.
The study is specific and time bound
in that it is confined to a particular instance of ethnic political violence
and Democratic stability in Nigeria.  It is expected to help subsequent research,
with a better understanding of the topic in case there is a need to further
validate the usefulness of the study in future, moreover, at a time when the
punitive topic of tackling ethnic religious crisis by the president Olusegun
Obasanjo administration has failed it is imperative that a new approach to
resolving political crisis and Democratic stability should be fashioned
out.  This work is expected to proffer
such a new approach.
 Basic Assumptions
That political violence necessarily
leads to political instability.
That political violence accounts for
lives and properties.
That political violence scares away foreign
investors and tourists from the nation. 
Democratic stability brings about foreign investors.
Research Methodology
The research methodology that will be
adopted for this study include social survey and content analysis, as such both
primary and secondary sources of data collections method will be adopted,
because in the cause of this study unconstructed interview and observation
method will be used, extensive use will be made of available materials like
Journals, newspapers, and relevant textbooks. 
In addition stake holders in crisis and stability, such as Obas high
chiefs, people of good will and chairman of the two local government council in
area, and particularly at Akpata where the crisis started and some important
personalities will be selectively interviewed orally on there respective localities
in order to discover the reason behind the location destruction of human lives
and properties in the area.  The
procedure of interpreting and analysis the data gathered from the field will be
qualitatively shown clearly showing the opinion of respondents.
Scope and Limitations to the study
Violence and Democratic stability in Nigeria with particular reference to Ijor/Ilaje
communities in Ondo State, Nigeria.
References were made to political
violence and Democratic stability elsewhere in Nigeria.  The research covers the Ijor/Ilaje crisis and
stability from its inception in 1998 till in present.
Limitation to the study
A considerable portion of the primary
and secondary information available to the researcher had emanated originally
from the wearing communities, thus rendering its objectively questionable.
This may hamper the empirical essence
of the study.  However, this was overcome
by cross examing facts and figures verifying such from objective civil society
Also this work is constrained by the
fact that the subject matter is a security issue, and as such, access to
government document was difficult.  This
was overcome through repeated visits to the communities and discussing with
people and evidences on ground.
Definition of Terms
Political violence: The concept political in this study means.  Incidents of riots, clashes, violent
demonstrations, hosting, election crisis, arson, assassinations and various
acts that disrupt orderliness and peace in a given society (Anifowose 1982:4).
Crisis: The
term means a time of great difficulties, danger, civil disorder and unrest in
any political system with serious consequences for the citizenry (Anifowose
This refers to the two communities that are inhabitants of Ondo and Delta States
in Nigeria.
Political system: The term in this study connote organized political institution of a state
with elected government that directs the affairs of the state (Agagu, 2001:17).
Political instability: The state of berry not steady or stable which is characterized by civil
disorder, confusion unrest, and hawlessness (Agagu).
Political Stability: This refers to organized society that is characterized by peace, new
and order and smooth administration (Agagu, Opeit).
Democratic stability: According to Agagu, democracy is not a concern that has simply been
imposed on Nigeria
from without, although there is certainly a connection between the commitment
and the official ideology of the formal colonial power. (Agagu, 2001:3) most
pertinently, it will be contended here that the underlying political and social
system in Nigeria
yields a continuing concern with how interest are represented and benefits
distributed.  Government of by and for
the people was therefore a fundamental principle of the anti-colonial struggle,
despite the fact that is a principle which has being so nucia abused since
independence by indigenous regimes. 
Nigerians are compelled to pursue democracy for the reason that are
unable to rely on any government or agency of the government in when their
particular sub – grou8p of the population is not directly and affectively
Nigeria appears to be a country lacking
political stability.  Other the or its
fourty nine years of its political independence the country has had eight
military coups.  Military interventions
are no longer tolerated.  Nonetheless,
the dialogue acknowledge the fact that the panacea against the future military
interventions is good civilian government and a critical condition for that
condition can not be ignored in this regard it is the very bad shape of the
economy (Ibid :12).
Democracy is universally
popular.  This situation tends it to
abuse and exploitation by those who are loss democratic in their beliefs and
actions (Jega and Waliki:2002:17) Democracy is a fluid form employed by the
people from diverse backgrounds and ideological personasions.  It promises among several others, popular
participation in the process of governance, equality amongs citizens,
sovereignty of people promotion and protections of human rights and essentials
freedoms, limited government and supremacy of the how (Ibid:17) embodied in the
concept of democracy is separation of power between the three arms of
government, the executive, legislature and the judiciary.
Pickles argued that: one of the most
difficult question to answer satisfactorily is: what is democracy? Not only is
there no agreed definition but some definitions are so vague as to be virtually
useless and others so specific as to be obviously incomplete (Pickles 1977:9)
linguistically the word simply means government by the people to the
people.  But this heaves a great problems
unsolved.  No political system at any
time democratic or not has provided for all the people even to choose the
government much less to excise governmental powers (Ibid:10)
Democracy is a concept that virtually
defies definitions, suffice it to say that it will be used as a synonym of what
Dahl called “polyarchy” it is not a system of government that fully embodies
all democratic ideals, but one that approximately them to a reasonable degree (Liyphart:1977:1).
Anifowose and Enemuo see democracy as
a term that is used to describe an idea, process (a series of event leading to
charge or as cause of action) or system of government.  They posit further that: Democracy entrances
and expands or seek to entrench and expand the rights, ability and capacity of
people in any community, large and small, from the most complex to the least
complicated, to take control of their lives through participating, as fully as
possible in discussions and decision on issues and events that affects them and
their community (Anifowose and Enemuo 1992:92).
According to Huntington and moore,
democracy where the principle leaders of political system are selected by
competitive elections in which the bulk of the population have the opportunity
to participate (Ibid:193) stability, a system is described as suitable if a
large cause giving rise to small effect (Awojobi 1981:8) conversely the system
is unstable, if a small cause gives rise to a large effect, stability involves
the maintenance of the status qou.
Foreign observers are often particularly
concerned about the stability of a new nation as if everything could be
achieved by maintaing a governmental status qou from the elites point of view
stability is a good thing because it means continuance of the power and
pre-requisites foreign investors want stability and will support oppressive
government to ensure it.  But stability
may not be best for the welfare of the ordinary people for the long term
development of the country (Feil 1976:195). Especially in Nigeria where the ordinary people
are faced with unemployment, poverty and inequality.  Nigeria place a strong value on
peace but not necessarily on stability. 
They see this stability of government may mean only self aggrandizement
of those in power and a bit of shaking up now and again may well benefit the
common people if this can be done through elections, good.  If not then other actions must be taken and
such action is usually to achieve and maintain stable democratic government in
a plural society is a well – established position, with a history reaching back
to Aristotle’s with a history of reaching back to Aristotle’s adage that “a
state aims being as fat it can be a society composed of equals and peers”
(Highart 1977:11) social homogeneity and political consensus are regarded as pre-requisites
for other factor strongly conducive to stable democracy conversely, the deep
social division and political differences within plural societies are held
responsible for breakdown stability in democracies.  It may be difficult it is not all impossible
to achieve and maintain stable democratic government in plural system.
According to Liyphart there are some
characteristics that can enhance democratic stability which are as follows:
system maintenance, civi-order, legitimacy and effectiveness of government in
carrying out its responsibility to the citizen. 
The foremost characteristics of a stable democracy.  Are that it has a high probability of
remaining democratic and potential civil allowance (Ibid).
The separation of powers doctrine
which is also concerned with democratic stability.  Particularly with the probability that
initially democratic in nature (Ibid:8).
1.10       Organization of the Chapters
This study is organized into five
chapters, chapter one is an introduction to the study, statement of the problem
chapter two dwells on theoretical frameworks and literature review, chapter
three, is an overviews of political violence and Democratic stability in
contemporary Nigeria.
Chapter four, is focused on the political violence between Ijor/Ilaje chapter
five, dwells on summary recommendations and conclusion of the study.



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