Background of the Study
The period from birth to the age of six more often referred to in educational contexts as early-childhood is the most rapid period of development in human life. In developmental psychology, it is generally accepted that the various domains of child development are interconnected and influence one another. This underscores the importance of total development in children and the imperative of early childhood education in catering for the developmental needs of the child (Nsikak and Mary-grace, 2014).
Development includes the process by which an organism grows from a foetus in the womb to an adult, processes that include predictable chances in biological maturation, physical structure, behavior and thinking. Some researchers think of development as a series of small, gradual, continous steps that blend into each other, just as a babbling sound of “mma, mma” becomes a call for “mama”. Others think of development as a series of distinct stages that are qualitatively different from each other, just as walking is significantly different from crawling. Some researchers focus primarily within the ‘interactions’ tradition that conceives development as located within the nested social contexts. Thus, development is constrained and elaborated by cultural contexts and by the architecture of the brain. These nested social contexts include the impact of close family on development and therefore underscores the vital role of parents in supporting children’s learning.
Amandeep and Jaswal, (2011) also defined early childhood years have been universally recognized as crucial years for laying the foundation. The significance of education during these early years of life hardly needs to be emphasized, today researchers have proved that this is the most impressionable period of one life. Impressions gained at this tender age have a far reaching effect on life. It is therefore, essential that a rich environment be provided to the child during this period of his growth and development.
Educationally, the period of early childhood is believed to be very important. It is known by different nomenclatures such as a pre-school education, nursery school, etc. Early childhood education can be defined as the education provided to children from 3 to 6 year of age. Odulowo, (2010) sees this unique field as a branch of knowledge and an essential component of all family and programme arrangement for young children from birth to the statutory school age of six. In the present investigation, early childhood education has been referred to as the educational provided by the nursery school, which intendeds to prepare children between 3 to 4 years of age for admission to formal school, i.e, for kindergarten. The main aim of such schools is to stimulate the all-round development of the child, which will include physical, social language, intellectual and moral developments.
This necessitates the provision of good facilities for education outside home. Many studies have revealed that experience in early childhood education had positive attitude toward classroom activities (Dhillon, 2009). This underscores the importance of total development in children and the imperative of early childhood education in catering to the developmental needs of child. Thus, development is constrained and elaborated by cultural contexts include the impact of close family on development and therefore underscores the vital role of parents in supporting children’s learning.
Some Nigerian children lack quality home learning environment because of social gap that is related to income and parental education. Some children experience some kind of home stimulation provided by their advantaged parents while those children who do not experience this of stimulation can be supported through early years learning and programmes. It is very pertinent to consider the Nigerian’s child processes of development (cognitive, social, emotional, moral and brain development) and the best supportive contexts for children’s early learning and development children must be provided with experience and support which will help them to develop a positive sense of themselves and of others, respect for others, social skills, and a positive is position to learn.
Perceptions are very personal and can be defined as a mental process in which the mind considers number of aspects simultaneously to make up complete and whole objects. In the presents study, ‘perception’ has been defined as opinions of parents and teachers of pre-school with regard to early childhood education. The parents blame the schools for insisting upon a vast syllabus whereas schools hold the parent responsible for the burden on the child as the parent which to secure admission of their ward in a good school and the vicious circle goes on. In order to understand how today education is influencing the child’s development, it is essential to look at the concept, objectives, contents and methods of nursery school education as perceived by the child educations parents and teachers.
Educational programmes are written programme by the institution or ministry of education which determine the learning process of formal education. Educational programmes facilitate children’s development. Educational programmes help children in developing the knowledge, skills and understanding that help them to make sense of the world. Educational programmes support children’s learning through offering opportunities for them to use a range of tools safely, encounter creatures, people, plants and objects in their naturals environments and in real life situations, undertake practical experiments and work with range of materials.
Educational programme creates an active learning environment for young children and consciously meets the cognitive, social, emotional, physical, moral development needs of a child. Educational programmes for a child is the comfort and confidence to grow and develop. Educational programmes of schools should be that which inculcates moral and spiritual principle in interpersonal and human relations, promote the cognitive, physical, emotional and psychological development of all children. Dissatisfaction with the educational programme in one school usually causes parents to look for better alternatives for their children which can promote their development. Early childhood education is to effect a smooth transition from the home to the school, provide adequate care and supervision for the children while the parents are at work, this inculcate social norm, develop a sense of co-operation, team-spirit, good habit, teach rudiments, forms, letters etc. through play (Nigerian National Policy on Education, 4th edition, 2004). Therefore any educational programmes developed for the child. Education must be that which can lead to the optimum development of the child.
Amandeep and Jaswal, (2011) asserted that educational programme on pre-school children are very important and essential activities in a nursery school as these bring about the intellectual, emotional and social development of the child. However parents and teachers were inappropriate in their perception as they think that a child is too young to understand the nature around him. In order to achieve the objective of all-round development of children and to bring about their physical, social, emotional, cognitive and aesthetic growth, variety of play activities should be planned in pre-school. Play activities like songs, music and dance, storytelling, clay and sand play, drawing and painting, doll and block corners in a nursery school programme should be considered essential by the school planners.
Statement of the Problem
Educational programmes in primary schools supposed to inculcate moral and spiritual principle in interpersonal and human relations, promote the cognitive, physical emotional and psychological development of all children. Desertification with the educational in primary schools usually causes parents to look for better alternatives for their children which can promote their development. Therefore any educational programmes developed for the child education must be that of which can lead to the optimum development of the child. Therefore, this study examines perception of teacher’s on the impact of educational programme on the development of primary school pupils of Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the perception of teacher’s on the impact of educational programme on the development of primary school pupils. In specific terms, the study sought to examine.
- The impact of educational programme on the physical development of children in pre-schools.
- The impact of educational programme on the social development of children in pre-schools.
- The impact of educational programme on the cognitive development of children in pre-schools.
Significance of the Study
This type of research work is expected to help primary school teachers to be more aware of educational programmes on children development and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to pupils’ academic achievement. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up educational programmes in such a way that pupils will perform well academically.
These will also help educational and curriculum planners which may guide them in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers will be aware that a cordial teacher parent relationship will improve the educational programmes on the development of a child in school.
Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.
Scope of the Study
This study is expected to cover all Nursery/Primary schools in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State.
The following research questions are raised in order to guide this research work;
- What are the impacts of educational programme on the physical development of primary school pupils in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State?
- What are the impacts of educational programme on the social development of primary school pupils in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State?
- What are the impacts of educational programme on the cognitive development of primary school pupils in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State?
Definition of Terms
Teachers: A teacher (also called a school teacher) or educator is a person who provides education for students. A person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college.
Nursery School: is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.
Home Environment: This refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral processes conducive to learning.
Academic Performance: This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected the same test.
Home Situation: Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by them.