PERCEPTION OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON CIVIC EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR PROMOTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS 

 

PERCEPTION OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON CIVIC
EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR PROMOTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS 

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the Perception of Senior Secondary School students on Civic Education as a tool
for Promoting Entrepreneurship Skills in Kaduna State Nigeria. The study was guided by six (6)
objectives, research questions and corresponding hypotheses. The work adopts descriptive research design
it has total population of six thousand one hundred and one (6,101) students out of which 365 was selected  as the sample for the study. Questionnaire titled Civic Education as Tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills Questionnaire (CETPES) was used for data collection with. A mean scores of 50.83, 60.32 and 61.1
were established. Simple percentage was used to compute the bio-data of the respondent, descriptive
statistics of means and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions, while the
hypotheses were analyzed using t-test statistics. Thus, the study conclude that Entrepreneurship skills
provide students with the training and support to establish career in small and medium size business
acquisition of basic skills for productive and profitable ventures; it also enhance economic growth for the
individual‟s citizens and the Nation. Civic Education raise morally upright and well adjusted individuals
who can think independently and rationally, respect the views and feeling of others and appreciate the
dignity of labour; inculcate in students their duties and obligations to the society; and also promote
acquisition of appropriate skills and development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies
as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. It also
recommends that, Graduates that read Civic Education should be given soft loans to establish small
scale industries for economic growth and National Development; Government should recruit
more qualified Civic Education Teachers for the inculcation of civic duties of the citizens;
Teachers of Citizenship Education should be sponsored to attend Workshops, Seminars and
Conferences to enhance their professional competency in the implementation of Civic Education
properly.
.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
One of the objectives of any government over the world is provision of quality education  to its citizens which is the bedrock for general development of any society in order to help it
becomes functional andenhanceawareness within and outside its environment.Although
traditional education exists side by side with the western education its value has been
deemphasized.In the early days, education was a tool of Western imperialism as foreign cultures
and values were taught as what constituted the social aspect of the curriculum. The discrete
social sciences, particularly History, Geography and Civics were taught to produce loyal and
obedient British subjects to serve the interest of the colonial masters. At the attainment of
independence and afterwards, Nigeria began to take acritical look at the curriculum in schools so
as to redirect focus.
Indeed, the 1968 Mombassa Conference formally and officially adopted Social Studies to
achieve this purpose. This marked a new beginning of Social Studies in Nigeria. Prior to the
Mombassa Conference of 1968, there were some other efforts in Social Studies education.
Perhaps, the early beginning of a truly indigenous Social Studies Programme in Nigeria was the
Aiyetoro experiment known as the “Ohio Project”, which was a programme of educational
partnership between the government of the then Western Region of Nigeria and the University of
Ohio in the United States of America (Makinde, 1979). This led to the teaching of Social Studies
to teachers and the subsequent production of a Social Studies syllabus and a textbook.
According to African Social and Environmental Studies Programme (ASESP)(1994), the
purpose and content of social studies are closely related to African traditional educationViewed
from this perspective, the developmental trend of Social Studies Education in Nigeria can be
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traced through the African traditional education, colonial, post-colonial and the integrated
approach.This is in line with the stand of (Ololobou 2010) who posits that, Nigeria like any other
African nations, had a system of education that integrates the young members into the society
through the inculcation of cultural practices, values and beliefs. Social Studies was offered at
Junior Secondary Schools, while for those that want to continue at the Senior Secondary Schools
offered Civic Education in place of Social Studies.
The introduction of Civic Education in Nigeria according to Lawal (2014) is aimed at
inculcating of the right type of knowledge, attitude, values and norms of the society in the
learners to enable them to be functional tools for transmission and development of attitude and
skills for the survival of the future generation. The main idea behind the introduction of Civic
Education is to equip learners with knowledge, competence and skills necessary for the
understanding and appreciation of the societal problems with the aim of finding workable
solutions to the Nation‟s problems by imparting the right type of knowledge, values and skills.It
also aims at producing graduates that will be vibrant, efficient and capable of creating jobs
forthemselves not job seekerswithin and outside their environment to enable them become useful
to themselves, society and as well as for national development.
The knowledge of Civic Education through citizenship education provides skills
necessary for the preservation of our traditional, customs, beliefs eg religion, blacksmithing,
farming, knitting, pot marking etc. It also teaches relationship that provides skills that promote
interpersonal relationship eg honesty, tolerance, kindness, caringand patience
The establishment of the modern and commercial schools dated back to 1950 by the
colonial masters to promote entrepreneurship skills.The introduction of Business Education into
secondary schools curriculum in the defunct Western and Eastern Regions of Nigeria in
1960s,and as well as the National Policy on Education brought Business Education to limelight
at all levels of the Nigerian educational system and subsequently and theNational Polices that
had been designed have more often than not emphasized the indispensible need of
entrepreneurship skills. An entrepreneurship skill as a discipline is offered at both junior and
secondary schools.It originated from the traditional apprenticeship which geared towards
promoting entrepreneurship skills acquisition through learning by imitation and practice. The
trainee is attached to a master, relation, parent or outsider for the training or apprenticeship after
which the trainee may decide to be on his own. According to Abubakar (2009) one of the causes
of low productivity in Nigeria today is the apparent lack of entrepreneurship skills and
competencies. Thus, policy makers should understand that the living standard of the people of
any nation largely depends on the economic potential of her citizens which is derived from the
knowledge of civic educationand entrepreneurship skills to inculcate in mine self employment, high
level of autonomy, achievement orientation, hard work disposition, and help in planning business
effectively, this could result in making Nigeria a self reliant nation.
It is in this light that this work attempt to analyze the perception of Senior Secondary
School students on the efficacy of Civic Education as a Tool for Entrepreneurship in the
demanding Nigeria mini markets.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Civic Education is a core subject in the Senior Secondary School (SSS) curriculum in
Nigeria. It was introduced as a solution to the socio-civic problems facing the country. The
cardinal aim of the subject is to breed effective citizenry who are useful to themselves, their
families, immediate community and the society at large. It is expected that students at senior
secondary schools should learn basic socio-economic and political skills that will make them
relevant and useful to themselves and society after graduation. Some of the socio-economic skills
expected to be inculcated in the students arethe thinking skill, academic skill and social learning
skills for self-reliance and private enterprise.
Entrepreneurship education is aimed at equipping students with basic skills an and competence
expected to be creative, autonomous and able to recognize hidden potentials and opportunities
within and outside their environment and also to train secondary school leavers on different
kinds of occupation so as to be self reliant after graduation. Despite these efforts,it wasobserved
thatat present, the Nigerian society places emphasis on certificate and wealth without
corresponding emphasis on character. Consequently, rather than producing objective and
patriotic human beings, the Nigeria educational programme produced many citizens who are also
selfish and indifferent to public affairs.
It became evident that the lack of Civic Education and patriotic orientation had led to
disorientation in schools and the larger society. The consequences were being felt at in all strata
of our society. The prevalence of trend of corruption, indiscipline, disrespect for both elders and
the rule of law, indifference to duty are some of the manifestations of negative trends in the
Nigerian society.
The development of the socio economic skills is highly needed in our educational system,
in that it would go along way to promote national development, technological emancipation,
industrial expansion and entrepreneurship opportunities. Therefore, the problem of this study
hinges on the determination of theextent to which senior secondary student‟sperceiveCivic
Education as toolfor promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State.
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1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perception of Senior Secondary School
(SSII, SSIII) students on Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills among
the senior secondary schools students in Kaduna State.
The specific objectives for this study are to:
i) Determine the perception of male and female senior secondary school students on the
knowledge of Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurshipskillsin
Kaduna State,
ii) Find out the different perception of SSII and SS III students on theknowledge of
Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State,
iii) Examine the different perception ofmale and female senior secondary school students
on the value of Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in
Kaduna State,
iv) Examine the different perception of SSII and SSIII students on the value of Civic
Educationas a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State,
v) Ascertain the different perception of male and female senior secondary school
students on the physicalability as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills through
Civic Education in Kaduna State,
vi) Determine the different perception of SSII and SSIII students on the physical ability
as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills through Civic Education among senior
secondary school students in Kaduna State,

Research Questions
The following research questions are set to guide the study.
i) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of male and female senior secondary
school students on the knowledge of Civic Education as a tool for promoting
entrepreneurship skillsin Kaduna State?
ii) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of SSII and SSIII students on the
knowledge of Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna
State?
iii) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of male and female senior secondary
school students on the values of Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship
skills in Kaduna State?
iv) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of SSII and SSIII students on the
value of Civic Educationas a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State?
v) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of male and female senior secondary
school students on the physicalability as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills
through Civic Education in Kaduna State?
vi) What is the difference in the mean perception scores of SSII and SSIII students on the
physical ability as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills through Civic Education in
Kaduna State?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant.
Ho1: There is no significant difference betweenmale and female senior secondary school
students on the knowledge of Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skillsin
Kaduna State,
Ho2: There is no significant differencebetween SSII and SSIII students on the knowledge of
Civic Education as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State,
Ho3:There is no significant difference betweenmale and female senior secondary school students
on the values of Civic Educationas a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State,
Ho4: There is no significant difference between SSII and SSIII students on the values of Civic
Educationas a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills in Kaduna State,
Ho5: There is no significant difference between male and female senior secondary school
students on their physicalability as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills through Civic
Education inKaduna State,
Ho6: There is no significant difference between SSII and SSIII students on their physicalability
as a tool for promoting entrepreneurship skills through Civic Education in Kaduna State,
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study are numerous that it include among others the following:
Stakeholders in education (education planners, policy makers and administrators) in
Nigeria who often concentrate on the factors affecting students learning will find the study useful
in providing the pedestal for further action. The finding of the study may be used for adjustment
where necessary in the senior secondary school curriculum in line with the need for promoting
entrepreneurship skills amongsenior secondary students in Nigeria.
Curriculum designers and planners will also benefit from the findings of the study so as
to make adjustment where necessary in the curriculum in line with the need for promoting
entrepreneurship skills amongsenior secondary students in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Department of Political Science and Social Studies in Universities and Colleges of
Educations, where they produceteachers who are implementers of Civic Education will gainfully
derive benefits from the study. This will be done through the insight gained from areas such as
adequate resources, lack of stability in the Civic Education programme, methodology and so on.
Educational researchers will use the study as a stepping stone for solution to the societal
problems on the issue of entrepreneurship skills education among the senior secondary students.
It serve as inventive for teachers to be hard- working in producing graduates that will be self
employed
A well designed Civic Education programme will benefit the society by reducing the rate
of societal vices among members and increasing self- confidence that enable individuals to use
the available resources within their immediate surrounding for economic enhancement.
This will served as a source on information to students who are always on the look out
for reliable information about Civic Education. The availability of such information will help the
student on the subject matter.
The knowledge and skills acquired will be beneficial to the youths/or general public to
become employers of labour which could help immensely in line with the intention of
government in producing self- reliant citizens.
Guidance and Counseling personnel in schools will get the finding of the study worthy as
a guide to help the students to make good career choices to solve their socio-economic
challengers as well as encourage them to continue their education at the same time.
The findings of the study will serve as a reference point for further research by
researchers on the transfer of value ofCivic Education for attainment of attitude and values for
entrepreneurship skills as the right spirit among the Nigerian students for socio-economic
development of the country.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is limited to Senior Secondary School Civic Education Students inKaduna
State, Nigeria. It was also limited to perception of Senior Secondary School Students on Civic
Education as a tool for promoting Entrepreneurship Skills amongstudents which will enable them
to be independent rather than beingdependent on their parents, society or government.

 

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