NEWSPAPER READERSHIP PATTERN AMONG NIGERIAN YOUTHS

NEWSPAPER READERSHIP PATTERN AMONG NIGERIAN YOUTHS.

ABSTRACT

Table Of Contents hide
CHAPTER ONE
All things being equal, the more educated one is, the easier it is

         
This study was carried out to determine the newspaper readership
pattern among youths.  This arose because it was thought that the youth
did not read newspapers and their use of other media was minimal.

         
Against the background of seemingly lack of readership among the
youth.  Questionnaires draw administered to ascertain the extent of
reading habit formed by this group.
         
The student of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu were
used as a focus.  This  was a good sample as the they represent the
youth found all over the country.

They 
all experience similar socio-economic dilemma.  They also face similar
financial as well as education problems experienced in the nation.  250 
respondents were sampled randomly and data analyzed and presented as
percentages in frequency distribution tables.  The work traced the
reading habit found among the youth.  Researcher questions and
hypothesis were used a guide for analysis and conclusion respecting.

         
The work reviewed other literature on the topic and found out what
their results were the conclusions down were based both on other related
work of literature and the results gathered from the  questionnaire. 
The result showed that there were indeed readership patterns among the
youth
The
showed that students read newspaper and they also bought majority of
respondents bought or read.  Result also showed that students who bought
were both more financially and academically favoured than others that
had lower reading habit.  It was also  found out that sex was no barrier
to who read and what was read.  The female students read more than the
male student  but they both read the same content in their favourite
newspapers.  Male youths read entertainment news in equal proportion
with the female youth.  There was also equal reading proportion in
contents that have to do end at the study, recommendations were made
about activities that will help the youth develop readership and use
pattern for the newspaper and other media. 

TABLES OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION                                        
1.1 Background of Study                                                   
1.2 Problem Statement                                                              
1.3 Objective of study                                                                
1.4 Significance of Study                                                  
1.5 Research questions                                                              
1.6 Research Hypothesis                                                   
1.7 Definition of Terms                                                     
1.8 Assumptions                                                                        
1.9 Limitation of study                                                               
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Sources of literature Review                                        
2.2 Literature Review                                                                 
2.3 Summary of Literature Review                                               
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY                                               
3.1 Research Method                                                                 
3.2 Research Design                                                                  
3.3 Research sample                                                                  
3.4 Measuring Instrument                                                 
3.5 Data Collection                                                          
3.6 Data Analysis                                                                      
3.7 Expected Results                                                                  
CHAPTER FOUR- DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS                
4.1 Data Analysis                                                                      
4.2 Results                                                                               
4.3 Discussion                                                                           
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                
5.1 Summary                                                                   
5.2 Recommendation                                                                 
5.3 Bibliography                                                                        
 5.4 Questionnaire                                                           

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1        BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The population explosion of youth in Nigeria generally has
been a cause of interest to economists as they study consumerism.
          This branch of economics helps in understanding consumer patters.

         
Communication, as old as man, being what it is, is very vital to the
growth and development of the psych0-social make-up of man.  This in
turn equips man in fitting into healthy patterns, modeled for definite
objectives in national polity.

         
The background against which thus study  is being get up include;
issues like literacy level, interest in role of newspapers (Newspaper
Consciousness) for the development of man, factors that  influence
choice/preference of man,  factors that influence choice/preference of
news contents, sex dependent variables among the study of age brackets
etc.  it is in view of this that a remote understanding of the history
and principles of communication is vital to this study.
         
Since the existence of man varying forms of communication have been
invented or rediscovered.  These include interpersonal, group public and
mass communication, each characterized by peculiar and channels of
information dissemination.  The channel have further been modified and
divided inter radio, books etc.

The
Newspaper being one modified channel of information dissemination
present the element of research for this study.  Newspaper with its
vital role to the development of man has undergone changes in both
content and form as to satisfy man’s consciousness in search of
information.  It is worthy to mention that information massages in
newspaper are structural to the readership pattern of the cross section
of the society.

         
The mechanics of communication which include picture, cartoons and
literate information become a remote but powerful factor  in creating on
interesting pool from which a  semi-pattern consequently emerges.

         
The principle of communication applied in this work emphasizes only on
the laws of efficient communication, some of which are good grammer and
syntax, appropriate use of literary devices that are not etc.
         
The above subject quickly recommends themselves to the intelligence
quittance of any readership.  This  form the determinant in newspaper
consciousness as it is well understood that over and above poriny at
payees of contents is fundamental to habit forming.  A highly literate 
as well as versed section of the society can literally was the seemingly
meaningless black print into a fabric of pleasure b because of level of
exposure to the element of literary appreciation.

         
In the present work, the word readership-pattern in understood as the
cross section of the society  that find time out of interest and habits
to indulge in the act of gathering information from newspapers.  This
understanding is only elementary as further into the work readership
assumes a wider scope.  The present study will seek to comparatively the
subject matter from the background of more complex definition. In view
of this, readership among the youth in general and students of Institute
of Management and Technology, Enugu  in particular, presents a
particular, phenomenon that arouses interest. 

         
More serious emphasis is laid on habit orientated readership pattern- a
pattern which is sustaining.  This is not to say that this readership
pattern influence positively than this demand and supply curve.  In fact
both readership patterns confine with a complex.  And this is what
actually influences the demand and supply.
         
An easily recognizable or predictable trend creates comparisons which
are made to create a model hypothesis that will help in decision
making.  Last but not the least, comparative are here refere to
relationship existing between under studied elements from the background
of stocktaking.
          In comparative presented in this work, comparison model have been created are got.
          The following are the comparison models employed in this work:
(a)          Sex oriented comparison model.
(b)         Age oriented comparison model
(c)          Finance oriented comparison model
(d)         Education oriented comparison model
(e)          Popular trend oriented comparison model
(f)           Political oriented comparison model
(g)         Religious conviction oriented comparison model
A.       SEX ORINTED COMPARISON MODEL

          
There is no point in doubting the fact the, gender goes a long way to
determine emotional responses to news content.  It is in view of this
that study seeks to investigate the determining factors that make a
particular sex to be more or less responsive to male-female ration among
the students readership will be determine and critically studied.

B.       AGE ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL:

From an earlier assertion, the age brackets have been defined

among which this study is to be undertaken namely.

          16 to 26 years
to discover the more responsive age group among these brackets.  A bird
view of the problem anticipated under this model is that hypothetically,
the upper age bracket appears to be more responsive for seasons that
may be stated from the questionnaire whereas lower group for other
peculiar reasons hypothetically may be less responsive to reading of
newspapers.

C.       FINANCE ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL

          It is no secret
in economics that as people’s spending powers grow with their standard
at living; they can more easily afford to indulge in less
“necessaries”.  If will not be out place for a hungry man to spend his
last Nzo for a lunch than by buy a newspaper and go hungry.  This
becomes more acute with students who always run budget-line.

D.      EDUCATION ORIENTED COMPARISM MODLE.

All things  being equal, the more educated one is, the easier it is 

for him to appreciate as well as extracting information from the newspaper

          hence one’s
level of education, in this case, the student goes a long way to
determine and habit in newspaper indulgence.

E.       POPULAR TREND ORIENTED COMARISON MODEL

          This is a less
serious model as it is not sustaining.  Nevertheless, when its cycle
come up, it can be quite impressive.

          By trend, we
mean a particular response due to a bias in society.  An example of
trend could be seen in old early country Newspaper pictures of the
English gentry where it is fashionable and popular to take snapshots
with newspaper or folding.

E.       POLITICS ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL

          Nationalism and
patriotism can compel ardent readership from patriots as they prefer
their own local newspaper to better produced but foreign newspapers.

          It is under such a model that we see customer ship done to certain newspaper that advance the cause of independence.

G.      RELIGIOUS CONVICTION ORIENTED MODEL

          Under this
model, we find people who for one religious conviction or the other
prefers some kind of news content in a newspaper.  Which presence may
persuade or dissuade them from doing custom to newspaper publishers.

1.2         STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Researcher
is done to identify a problem.  Hence the identification these problems
gives direction to research works in this case the problems that led us
into research are media
1.            Media illiteracy as an impediment to Newspaper consumption among Nigerian youths.
2.            financial difficulty that are facing Nigerian youth which in turn stand as an obstacle to Newspaper consumption.
3.            the problem associated with the reading habit among Nigeria youths.
1.3         OBJECTIVE OF STUDY.
The
aim embarking on this study was promoted by an observation made by
earlier researchers that the youths are generally not information
conscious and it is only the males among the youths, that try at all to
obtain information, specifically through the print media like
newspapers.
         
This study wants to know if summaries and conclusions of other works
are also applicable to youths with lugh level at educational exposure. 
The work wants to find out if the new socio-economic status of the
females, their new political awareness orientations has affected their
readership pattern.
         
It also aims at finding out if it only the female youths that still
read entertainment and family based materials in newspaper or if the
males have been affected by changes in the society and why their sudden
interest.
1.4         SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The result of this study will help editors editor of different
newspapers
to know the demography of their audience.  With the results obtained,
they will know what material to retain or remove from their news
content.
The
study will help to find out the problems they youth grapple with, that
have made them lose interest in bunny and reading newspaper.  It will
also help editors know how to reach out the young generation so as to
create good reading habit in them.  The project will help editors know
how to reach out the young generation so as to create good reading habit
in them.  The project will help editors and publishers know the
psychological disposition information dissemination.
1.5         RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
1.            Do educational and financial positions affect newspaper readership among youth/
2.            Do male youth read more newspapers than female youths?
3.            Do female youths and more of entertainment news than male youths?
4.            Does age affect newspaper readership among Nigerian youth?
1.6         RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.            Hi Educational and Financial positions affect newspaper readership among youths.
Ho: Education and financial position do not effect newspaper readership among youths.
2.            H2: Male youths are more newspaper readers than male youths.
Ho: Female youths are more newspaper readers than male youths.
H3: Female youths read entertainment material than female youths.
Ho: Male youths read entrainment material than female youths.
H4: Age as a factor affect newspaper readership among the youths.
Ho: Age as a factor is not affecting newspaper readership among the youths.
Does age  affect newspaper readership among the youths?
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL

1.7     DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:

PATTERN:     A way, in which something happens, moves, develops, or is arranged.

NEWSPAPER:          A part printed daily or weekly containing news material.

READERSHIP:         the number or type of readers of a Newspaper, magazine, etc or of a particular writer

YOUTH:        The time when a person is young, especial the time before the child becomes an adult.

SEX:   This means being male or female.

NEWSPAPER CONTENT:    subject matter in Newspaper.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Newspaper:  The printed ailies e.g punch, daily champion, vanguard, sum etc

Pattern:        The level consumption (e.g daily, weekly, occasional etc.

Youth:          Relating to the age that consumed the newspaper, e.g 16-25, 25-30 year etc

Newspaper Content:         These are contained in the volume of news,

articles, adverts, Arts, fashion, foreign news
etc

YOUTH:       
This word includes children and young person of both sexes.  It also
involves status classification of children and young adults.

SEX:  
This means differences that exist between male and female.  This term
as well means the sum total at characteristics, which distinguish male
from female.

NEWSPAPPER CONTENT: 
This means that which is contained in the volume of a newspaper.  The
amount of substance of work a newspaper can hold for example fashion
etc.

1.8     ASSUMPTIONS

         
Male and Female student of the Institute of Management and Technology,
(IMT) Enugu, are literate.  The students posses a similarity of
psychological as well as other dispositions with the rest of youths that
live in the country.  Also they have equal access to newspapers both
financially and otherwise.

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