Title page
Approval page
Table of Contents
Background of the study
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Statement of problem
Research questions
Scope of the study
Limitation to the study
Concept of cohesion
Types of cohesion (grammatical and lexical) and the relationship between the use of cohesive devices and L2 writings.
Concept of lexico-semantic
Types of ambiguity (polysemy and homonym)
Types of congruence (synonym, hyponym, antonym and meronym).
Writing skill and writing errors
Research design
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Instrument for data collection
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Analysis of Data
Discussion of findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary of the Findings
Implication of the findings
This study examines the lexico-semantic relation errors in ESL writings in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. The data was taken from 120 SS ii students letter texts in two schools randomly selected. The lexico-semantic errors were traced to four linguistic sources: collocation, generalization, similarity, and duplication. From these, seven sub-categories of errors were identified. Percentages was used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents and from the findings, it was revealed that collocation errors are predominant, accounting for b56.6% of the total lexico-semantic errors. The reason for this may be traced to improper mastery of lexical sense relations. This aspect of lexical studies is often neglected in ESL classroom. As a result, the students cannot define boundaries that separate lexical items. The study concludes that teachers should teach lexical sense relations and should emphasize collocations especially the types that learners have difficulties in learning as observed in their writing. Pupils should also be encouraged to read a lot of literature written in English, since collocations are better acquired through reading.
Background of the Study
In every community, language is the key factor to human interaction. Language interprets the culture of an area and individual behavior more appropriately than anything else. Language use is a social activity and the study of actual instances of language that have been used, or being used by speaker and a writer is the concern of modern linguist. Bringing together linguistic, sociological, and psychological insight over the years, socio-linguists, pragmatists, discourse analysts and texts linguists have been able to show how language relates to the social context of its use and how meanings are made in everyday linguistic interactions.(fishman, 1971; Austin, 1962; Halliday and Hasan, 1985; Sinclair and coulthand, 1957).
Writing, like any other form of discourse is a social activity. The spatial distance between a writer and his reader places on the former certain demands, one which is explicitness, which may be achieved through appropriate choice of words and their relations. In writing, there is no visual or aural contact, and thus, no possibility of immediate feedback, (Eggins: 1994). Writers make distinct and conscious choices of lexico-grammatical items that best express the meaning they are trying to convey from the system of networks that constitute language. These are put together to form a single integrated structure that is regarded as a text, Halliday and Hasan, (2004), Bloor and Bloor (1995).
Text refers to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole and is best regarded as a semantic unit. A text has linguistic features which can be identified as contributing to its total unity and giving it texture (Halliday and Hasan, 1976:1-2). Texture is provided by cohesive relation that exists between cohesive items. Cohesion distinguishes texts from non-texts and enables readers or listeners to establish relevance between what was said, is being said, and will be said, through appropriate use of the necessary cohesive devices. Furthermore, cohesion refers to the linguistic features which help make a sequence of sentences a text. It occurs in a text through the use of devices that link across sentences. According to Ferris, D. (2004), it is define as the use of explicit cohesive devices that signals relations among sentences and parts of text. Cohesion is concerned with the ways which the components of text are connected.
In sum, it is a relationship between lexical items and structures which are put together to construct a unified text. Cohesion is also one among the seven standards of textuality (Beugrade and Dressler: 1983).
However, a comprehensive problem may occur if there is limited background knowledge on the relatedness of sentences in a text. In such cases, readers rely much on a coherent text with appropriate explicit signals to compensate for lack of prior knowledge.
A text is coherent when a reader understands the function of each succeeding unit of text in the development of its overall or global meanings. However, in order to understand the importance of cohesive devices as grammatical and lexical structure, it is also highly important to consider their contribution in the meaning-making process of the text.
Contrary to the general notion of text as a product of combining sentences, it is an actualization of meaning represented by sentences. The meaning or what is meant, is selected by the speaker or writer from a set of options that constitutes meaning potential. Hence, a meaning can be represented through a variety of grammatical forms, but the selection is based on the best option that can convey meaning most effectively. This is done because the text is not only seen as a linguistic form but also a means for social interaction. Sequencing words and structure in a text in such a way that they are semantically and syntactically appropriate has been a potential source of problem for learners of English as a second language (ESL). Therefore, there is need for the study of lexico-semantic relations errors in ESL student’s writings. As when students write, they need to establish clear relations between one sentence and the next by connecting these statements together. Undoubtedly, good writing establish a sense of direction by making explicit connections among their different parts, so that what is said in one sentences or paragraph not only sets up what is to come but is clearly informed by what has already been said.
Purpose of the Study
This research work (lexico-sematic relations errors in writings of selected senior secondary school students) is specifically aimed at;
­(i) identifying lexico-semantic deviant in ESL writings and
(ii) Determine cohesion in ESL writings.
Significance of the study
Any venture into the problem of teaching and learning is a step further in the advancement of education. Therefore, this study is expected to be of help to the English language teachers in improving teaching and learning process in senior secondary school writings particularly defining the semantic boundaries that separate lexical items. It is also hoped that it will motivate the pupils or students to read a lot of literature written in English since collocations are better acquired through reading and chances that ESL learners cannot combine words correctly without having previously read them.
Statement of the problem
Sequencing words and structure in a text in such a way that they are semantically and syntactically appropriate has been a potential source of problem for learners of English as a second language (ESL). It is to these that this study is carried out to examine the lexico-semantic relations errors in ESL writings.
Research questions
This study survey lexico-semantic relations error in writings of selected senior secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state using the following questions:

  • What are the linguistic factors or sources leading to lexico-semantic relation deviants?
  • What are the common lexico-semantic relation errors predominant in ESL writings?
  • What are the effects of the predominant lexico-semantic relation errors on ESL writings?

Scope of the study
This research work is limited to senior secondary schools students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state Nigeria. The study covers two selected schools viz;

  • Ekiti State Government College, Ikere-Ekiti and
  • Eleyo High School, Ikere-Ekiti

Limitation to the study
Perhaps this study would have made to cover large populations and geographical area but limited by lack of finance and shortage of time.

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