INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY IN
SECONDARY SCHOOLS  
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education, in every
human community is an indispensable instrument for human progress, empowerment
and effecting national development. This suggests that a nation that lacks
sound educational culture and philosophy stands the risk of decay whereas a
nation that sees to the development of its education sector is bond to achieve
great success. Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and
learning. It is also more important that the teachers are properly accommodated
to facilitate the teaching –learning process that go on there. This is the
essence of the school plant and facilities (Alimi 2004). Therefore school facilities are the space
interpretation and physical expression of the school curriculum.
Student performance
is also refered to as academic achievement by Adediwura and Tayo (2007). Academic achievement or academic
performance is the out come of education the extent to which a student, teacher
or institution has achieved their educational goals. Achievement is commonly
measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general
agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important. Students
achievement in Biology cannot be traced to a single factor but by multiplicity
of factors such as environment, student attitude, teaching techniques, school
facilities, teacher qualification and many more.
According to Harb
and El-shaarawin (2006) there are two types of factors affecting
student academic achievement. These are internal and external classroom
factors. Internal classroom factors includes, student’s competence, class
schedules, class size, textbooks, class test results, learning or school
facilities, school or class environment, complexity of course materials,
teachers role in the class, technology used in the class and exam systems.
External ones include extra curricular activities, family problems, and
financial problems, social and other problems.
Noble (2006) emphasized student
achievement and activities, perceptions of their coping strategies and positive
attributions and background characteristics (i.e family income, parent level of
education, guidance from parents and number of situation in the home) were
indirectly related to their composite scores through academic achievement in
high school.
Young (1999) held the view that
student’s performances are tend with the use of library and the level of their
parental education. To Hussan (2006), the guidance from the parent and
teachers indirectly affects the performance of the student. Socio-economic
factors like family income, parent’s education, teacher-student ration, presence
of trained teacher in school are also factors influencing the performance of
the student (Raychauduri, Amivata, Majundar, 2010).
School facilities have been observed as a
potent factor to quality education. It is importance to the teaching and
learning process cannot be over-emphasized. Effective learning can occur
through one’s interaction with the environment. Environment here refers to the
facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome or
achievement. These facilities include school building, library, laboratory,
textbooks, software and hardware of educational technology etc. These
facilities goes a long to affect ot enhance students performance or achievement.
This can be realized when there are qualified teachers to handle the subject
and the facilities are available.
According to Oni (2002) facilities
constitutes a strategic factor in any organizational functioning. This is so
because they determine to very large extent the smooth functioning education.
He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence
efficiency and high productivity. In his words, Farombi (1998) Opined
that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education
in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good
schools with qualified teachers and with such, there as well as high academic
achievement. Adesola (2008) found out that the level of available
resources is indeed a plus to the teachers and goes a long way to show the
level of ingenuity and commitment towards effective delivery of lesson.
Akinfolarin (2002) identified
facilities as a major contributing factor to academic achievement in the school
system. Different studies conducted by Ayodele (2006) and Vandiver
(2011
) showed that a positive relationship exists between availability of
facilities and students academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities
in teaching –learning process, Balogun (2002) submitted that no
effective science education programme can exist without facilities for
teaching. This is because facilities enable learners or students to develop
scientific attitude and problem solving skills.
1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is find out
the possible influence school facilities have on student achievement in biology
in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government, Ondo State.
Subsequently, the researcher will attempt to identify the contribution of some
elements that constitutes these facilities and their impact on students
academic achievement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The roles of school facility in enhancing
students academic achievement cannot be over emphasized. Therefore this study
has the problem of the influence of school facilities on student achievement.
The problem of vailability, adequacy, management and utilization of school
facilities is also examined.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study will be guided by following
research questions.
1. Will availability
of school facilities influence students achievement in Biology in secondary
schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
2. Will adequate
school facilities student achievement in Biology in secondary School in Akoko
North East local Governemt Area of Ondo State.
3. Will management
of school facilities influence student’s achievement in Biology in secondary
schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
4. Will improvisation of school facilities
influence students achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North
East Locat Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. Availability of
school facilities will not significantly influence student’s achievement in
Biology.
2. Adequacy of
School facilities will not significantly influence student’s achievement in
Biology.
3. Management of
School facilities will not significantly influence achievement in Biology.
4. Utilization of school facilities will not
significant influence student achievement in Biology.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is delimited to secondary school
in Akoko North East Local Government, Ondo State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will help to
determine to what extent the availability of necessary facilities like,
libraries, school building laboratories and textbooks in schools would
facilitate effective teaching of biology as well as attaining high academic
achievement of students. It would therefore inform stake holders in the
education sector such as policy maker, government functionaries, academicians
the need for the provision of these school facilities.
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