INDIVIDUALIZE INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 Background to the Study
Individualized
instruction  refers to those classroom
practices of teaching which recognize the uniqueness of each student learner
and thus provide for adequate tutorial guidance, and other support services
suited to bring about a wholesome development in the person (mind, body, and
spirit).
Individualized
instruction is about using teaching strategies that connect with individual
student’s learning strategies. The ultimate goal is to provide a learning
environment that will maximize the potential for student success.
Differentiated
instruction is an instructional theory that allows teachers to face this
challenge by taking diverse student factors into account when planning and
delivering instruction. Based on this theory, teachers can structure learning
environments that address the variety of learning styles, interests, and
abilities found within a classroom.
Many educators (Mbakwem, 2001;
Oleabhiele, 2011; Oyibe and Nnamani, 2014) support the  effectiveness of individualized instructional
method in teaching and learning of Social Studies. Oleabhiele (2011) for
example is of the view that proper use of individualized instructional method
in teaching and learning of Social Studies will encourage skills acquisition
and development of values. Oyibe and Nnamani (2014) on their own view held that
the use of individualized instruction in teaching Social Studies in secondary
schools enables the teachers to see each learner as a unique being that
possesses certain peculiar traits, potentials and abilities.
Mbakwem (2001) opined that
individualized instruction is an instructional mode that is tailored to the
need and ability of individual learners. It s an individual-oriented method
which seeks to identify the needs of individual, be it physical, social,
emotional or intellectual. Individualized instruction means giving suitable
instruction to each student. It is not teacher centered, and different
students-centered and the purpose is helping students learn what they need
using their own learning style and at their own pace (Altman, 1972).
Individualized instructional method promotes maximum interaction between and
among Social Studies students to enhance efficient decision making while
discussing and analyzing social issues.
Oyibe and Nnamani (2014: 14)
stated that “the method encourages the development of critical thinking and
inquiry spirit through interaction, negotiations and clarifications of basic
content or ideas because through individualized learning, students enjoy the
liberty to advance their own ideas and to benefit from the ideas and views of
others”. The use of individualized instruction in teaching Social Studies in
secondary schools enables the teachers to see each learner as a unique being
that possesses certain peculiar traits, potentials, and abilities.
Therefore, it is expected that the teacher should
ensure that the unique qualities are carefully put into consideration in the
teaching/learning process Instructional  
 materials are print and non-print
items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational
process. Instructional    materials include items such as: kits,
textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc.
Instructional  
 materials play a very important
role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the
students. At this time that education has spread  wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be
the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use Instructional    materials to make teaching and learning
process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) . According to Abdullahhi
(2010), Instructional    materials are tools locally made or imported
that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005) view them
as materials things which are use to composed ported that could make tremendous
enhancement of intellectual use impact the Instructional    materials
 The use of Instructional    materials can enhance the learning
achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that
provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the
objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment Practical experience
in any science for that matter is crucial for proper understanding of any
principle and application of the knowledge in that subject for cognitive growth
and  technological orientation and
advancement.  In appreciation of this fact, Lee (2013) emphasized that if
biology is to perform the above role of improving the society, then the biology
teacher must do the following: Choose the best materials to present to
students, Try new roles, materials and strategies, Make use of individual
instruction.
Therefore activities such as collecting of materials,
observing, recording observations, classifying and carrying out field work
should be well encouraged.  The method for achieving this is through
visual instruction.  It was the original method in biological science when
the naturalist devoted his study to organisms as he found them in nature. 
The result of his work, he wrote down to be passed on to others.  The knowledge
was finally put in form of books. 
As the study of biology becomes more popular in schools, and
number of students increased, it becomes more difficult to study original
materials.  Part of this difficulty comes by the use of laboratory,
preserved materials,  charts and
models.  But the pressure of larger number of students and increasing cost
caused this situation to be abandoned most times.  Miller and Blaydes (2011)
asserted that the result has been that an increasing proportion of biology
teaching has been done from books and lecture notes.  This situation to a
large extent is responsible for the poor performance in the senior secondary
school certificate examinations conducted by West African Examination
Council.  In Nigeria, the educational system has been facing a lot of
critical problems amongst which are increasing enrolment, shortage of qualified
teachers, absence of laboratories and in many cases presence of laboratories
but acute shortage of necessary teaching and learning materials.
       The Federal Government of Nigeria through the
Federal Ministry of Education with the assistance of UNESCO in 1998 established
a science equipment centre to provide course for science teachers and
laboratory assistants.  The provision of this centre though laudable has
been inadequate.  Teachers of biology and other sciences therefore have to
acquire and develop skills of producing teaching materials.  This is what
improvisation is all about.  It is the process of providing quickly in
time of need, using whatever happens to be available, the materials and
equipment for facilitating the teaching of biology.  Otitoju (2000) opined
that in biology teaching nature presents a rich laboratory because specimens of
plants and animals are abundant around us, however equipment needed for
capturing animals.  Performing physiological experiment, timing experiment
or processes as well as some specimens which are available have to be
improvised using locally available materials. The essential qualities of any
improvised teaching aid are accuracy, realism, comprehensibility and interest.
There is
need for adequate Instructional      resources especially a well equipped
laboratory to enable the various activities planned in textbooks to be
adequately carried out laboratory and equipment of biology teaching are
essential features in the new biology teaching are essential features in the
new biology curriculum because it is child centered and activity oriented
(Ogunniyi 1978, Ango, 1983 and Asun, 1981). Studied the importance of practical
work in biology teaching. They observed that. student’s interest is stimulated
whenever they come in content with biology equipment and materials during
practical or project work. It offers them an opportunity to put theory into
practice, studies in education urge that children should begin their work on a
topic with concrete experience using ordinary things which they can handle and
common things which they can become familiar with. It could enable them to
discover some of the object or class to another. The first experience should be
concrete not verbal for the student to be able to ‘understand the concept being
illustrated. Various senses are involved and the resultant understanding is
beyond verbal explanation. The more human sense employed.
Statement Of The Problem
It was observed at the time of this study that,
effective application of individualized instructional method were hampered by
some certain factors such as location of schools and teachers’ teaching
experiences; the aggregated by number of years in job. It is the number of
years in service that determines the experience and inexperience teachers. In
most cases, the application of certain instructional method (s) depend wooly on
the availability of instructional materials to be used and the availability of
such depend on the location of the school which is narrowed to urban and rural
schools. It was also noticed that effective application of such instructional
methods as individualized method is affect by location of school and the learning
environment, which has to do with space as concerning classroom space, seat
arrangement and
number of students in each classroom. Most schools
in the urban areas are characterized by overcrowded classroom that did not
permit effective interaction while the schools located at rural areas lack
competent teachers, school library and learning materials that make classroom
interaction interesting, concrete and participatory.
Human factors are problems associated with the
teacher’s professional commitments, creative ability technical skill, ingenuity
and competence. The questions here according to Balogun (1982) include is the
teacher readily willing to abandon all practical work if  the ready 
made equipment is not available?
Purpose of The Study
This study
is designed to investigate the effectiveness of individualized instructional
method in teaching and learning of biology 
in Ikere Local government area
The
specific objective will be to
i.                  
Investigate the positive and negative attitude of
biology students towards individualized Instructional method  in teaching and learning biology
ii.                
To investigate if students taught with individualize
instructional method material perform better than students taught with
conventional method
iii.             
To find out the problem associated with the use of
indviudalize instructional method in teaching biology
iv.             
To determine the impact of indivaldualize Instructional      method on student academic performance in
biology
Research Question
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 Research Hypothesis
·       
There is no significant difference between
students taught with individualize instructional method  those taught with conventional method of
teaching
Significance Of The Study
The significance of this study is
that the study could contribute to the teaching and learning of biology, in
senior secondary schools. Besides, it could also suggest how the instructional
could be taking care of. Also the study could suggest to the government how
qualified personnel’s can be trained to handle available instructional
materials.
The study might also give
suggestions which will influence the decisions of teachers, Parent Teachers
Association [PTA] as a body, Old Students Association, and the community
leaders on how to improve the personal condition of schools as regards
provision, caring of instructional materials.
Scope of the study
This
research work investigate individualized instructional method in teaching and
learning of biology in ikere local
government area of ekit state
.
The  study is limited to all teachers and
students  of biology at the senior
secondary level in five selected secondary schools in Ikere local government
area of  Ekiti State
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