IMPACT OF SOCIO – ECONOMIC FACTOR ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

ABSTRACT
          This study was carried out to
investigate the impact of Socio – Economic factors on student performance in
Economics in Okitipupa in Ondo
State, the objective is
to find out the position of Socio – economic factors on students performance in
Economics of Senior Secondary schools. 
The schools used for the work includes Stella Maris College, Okitipupa,
Ofedepe Comprehensive High School, Okitipupa and some others, sixty
questionnaires were used, twenty in each school.  The schools were chosen considering their
location and establishment.  Some is
owned by private organization which is attended mostly by students’ from high
and average socio – economic status while some are owned by the government.
The questionnaire was administered in
the sampled schools with the help of economics teachers and other staffs of the
schools.
The person product moment statistics
was employed to test the hypothesis set. 
The result shown that there are significant relationship between parents
socio – economic status and student’s performance in Economics.
The result revealed that parents pay
no attention to the education of their children instead socio – cultural
activities that yields no benefit in the long run.
Recommendation were therefore made
based on the finding the improve performance of economics students in Senior Secondary
School.  It
is also recommended that children should not be over used in domestic
activities to the detriment of their academic work.
Well to do people in the state should
emulate the Adisa Bakare Educational Endowment Found (ABEEF) by giving
scholarship to the students to enhance qualitative and quantitative education
in the area study.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                               
Certification                                                                          
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of contents                                                                
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION                                          
1.1           
Background
of the study                                                        
1.2           
Statement
of the problem                                            
1.3           
Purpose
of the study                                                         
1.4           
Research
Question/Hypothesis                                               
1.5           
Significance
of the study                                                        
1.6           
Scope
of the study                                                                 
1.7           
Definition
of Terms                                                      
CHAPTER TWO
2.1           
Review
of Related Literature                                        
2.2           
Objectives
of Nigeria
Secondary Education                           
2.3           
Role
of Socio – Economic factor in teaching and
learning process                                                            
2.4           
Trends
of students performance in Economic
over the year                                                               
2.5           
Effect
of Socio – Economic factor on student’s
performance in Economics                                           
CHAPTER THREE
3.0     INTRODUCTION
TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY       
3.1           
Research
Type                                                              
3.2           
Population
of the study                                                          
3.3           
Sample
and Sampling Techniques                               
3.4           
Research
Instrument                                                     
3.5           
Validity
                                                                        
3.6           
Administration
of the Instrument                                 
3.7           
Technique
of Data Analysis                                        
CHAPTER FOUR:
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT       
4.1           
Analysis
and Result                                                      
4.2           
Summary
of findings                                                  
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
5.1           
Summary
of Main findings                                           
5.2           
Conclusion
                                                                 
5.3           
Recommendations                                                                  
5.4           
Suggestion
for further studies                                      
BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                 
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                              



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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background of the Study
Education has been identify as a tool
necessary for economic growth and development. 
Educational opportunities in Nigeria are neither equally distributed
among different sectors of the population now evenly utilized.
It may be pertinent to note that
economic progress and development of any nation depends on the level of
education of her populace (FRN 1998). 
However, it is noted that education opportunities are not equally
distributed in Nigeria.  This was influence by social and economic
status of parents government and the society at large.  The role of parents in the education of
children are fundamental to the future of such children.
Looking at the area which this
research collered, it is very clear that subsistence farming is then
predominant form of economic activities in the area of study.  Other minor occupation include: tailoring,
bricklaying, laundry, hairdressing, mechanics and so on.
A limited number of parents are in
the civil service, particularly teaching, while others are employed by private
entrepreneurs.
Onigu and Ogionwo (1994) used the
following indices as an indication of socio – economic factors which include,
income, education of parents occupation and motivation, level of urbanization
and social class.  All these are indices
of social stratifications in the society.
Jerolimek and Foster (1976) said that
parents who are reasonably well educated, who are in average and above average
income levels, this they are able to select residence in areas conducive for
the education of their children’s while the poorly educated low – income
families tend to live in unconducive atmosphere that impede teaching and
learning process.  People in Okitipupa
Local Government are majorly from rural area and poor families.  As a result, the extent to which people excel
in their academics is very low.  This
accounts for the poor performance of students’ in Economics at the Senior Secondary
School levels. 
Similarly, Dechant (1993) claimed that social class influences certain
economic advantages for students in Economics. 
He stated that social class determines what goals the students will
seek, what attitudes he would hold, how motivated towards schools and its
curriculum offers the friends he chose, and it positively related to
educational attainment and aspiration.
Economics as a social sciences has
major role to play to enhance economic development and integrative economics
has a goal to achieve in other to accomplish the global aim of the
country.  The goal of Nigeria Education
(FRN 1998) is to attain the following:
·                   
A
free and democratic society;
·                   
A
just and egalitarian society;
·                   
A
united, strong and self – reliant nation;
·                   
A
great and dynamic economic;
·                   
A
land of bright and full opportunity for all citizen;
Economics is one of the social
sciences taught at Senior
Secondary school with aim
of equipping an individual for useful living within the society and prepares
him or her for higher education.
However, socio – economic factors
affect the performance of students’ in economics, Uche (1986) asserted that
parents of high socio – economic status have positive attitude towards the
education of their children and therefore strive to provide them with
qualitative education.  Musgrave (1965)
found that a high income enable parents to give their children every necessary
materials for their well – being.  It is
the great opportunity to live in a pleasant surrounding, provided with
necessary educational toys, to attend private school with high and quality
staff ratio, to receive stimulating experience and to be able to enter the
right ‘circle’ in the decision making of the country.
On the other hand, parents from low
socio – economic status usually who show less concern to their children
education.  Ausu (1984) explained that
children born to poor parents mostly of unskilled manual parents, are often
denied of normal amenities such as electricity, pipe borne water and toilet.  In most cases, some of the home are poorly punished
with little to offer the children such as poor clothing leading to
diseases.  Douglas
(1969) buttressed the point that trained economics teachers might not be
willing to teach in the rural areas and when they do, they do so for doing
sake.  Therefore, environmental factor
influence the performance of students. 
Allotary (1980) concluded that the idea that urban areas encouraged a
child to develop a talents, attitudes to education, while rural areas do not
usually presents a conducive atmosphere for education.
Thus, socio – economic factors have
impact on students’ academic performance in economics in the area study.  The main occupation of area of study include
petty trading, farming which all limit the extent to which children excel in
secondary school.
The researcher also noted that the
people in the area study focus much on socio – cultural activities such as
funeral ceremony, marriage and naming ceremonies at the expense of their students;
education.  Also, the idea of extended
family contributed to the extent to which students acquire knowledge.  The number of children by a parent also
affects the students academic performance. 
The research shows that the first four of sibling have educational
advantage than the sixth, seventh and eight sibling.
Therefore, the socio – economic
factors have influence on students performance in economics in Ondo State
a case study of Okitipupa Local Government.
1.2           
Statement of the Problem
The researcher has observed that 2002
academic session results of West African Senior School Certificate Examination
(WASSCE) in Economics in Ondo
State, a case study of
Okitipupa Local Government was relatively poor.
An observation of secondary schools
in some areas within the local government reveal that private secondary school
in Ondo State a case study of Okitipupa Local Government performed better than
their counterpart in other area.
So this research work aimed at
investigating the extent to which socio – economic factors has impeded
students’ academic performance in economics among secondary schools in Ondo
State, a case study of Okitipupa Local Government within the last four session
with the intention of forwarding useful suggestion to correct the situation.
1.3           
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the research work is
to find out the extent to which socio – economic factors have impact on the
students academic performance in economics at Secondary School in Ondo State,
a case study of Okitipupa Local Government. 
It is also aimed at finding the role and effects of socio – economic factors
on students’ performance.
1.4           
Research Questions/Hypothesis
The following research questions
would be addressed in the study.
1)               
Is
parents educational background have influence on students’ performance in
Economics?
2)               
Is
learning environment have impact on students’ academic achievement?
3)               
Is
availability and accessibility of essential household item (print and
electronic media).
4)               
Is
there any relationship between parents attitude and academic performance?
HO1:  There is no significant relationship between
parents occupation and academic performance
HO2:  There is no significant relationship between
parents’ literacy and students academic performance.
HO­3­:  There is no relationship between learning
environment and the students performance in Economics.
1.5           
Significance of the study
          Education
is an important level towards economic development and social progress.  Without education, a nation is thrown into a
deep sea, floating as a ship, without a captain.  Its provision should be highly necessary
rather than luxury.  As a necessity, it
need to be concentrated not only in urban areas but in the rural area where
majority of Nigerian populace reside.
The research work will also be useful
to the parents, school authority, government and education policy makers.  The research work will enable parents to
realize the extent to which their socio – economic status affects the
performance of their children.
The research work will assist parents
to provide the necessary materials needed by the student to excel in Economics
at WASSCE.
It will also help the government to
know the extent to which their contribution and impact can improve socio –
economic factors of the society so as to bring good academic performance at the
senior secondary schools.
The research work could assist the
educational policy makers to plan the education sector in such a way that will
bring economic growth and development as well as realization of the goal of Nigeria
education as stated in National Policy Education (FRN 1998).
1.6           
Scope of the study
The study is limited to the impact of
socio – economic factors on senior secondary school performance in
Economics.  Although, there are other
variables affecting students performance such as learning environment and the
resources (human and materials) available for teaching and learning.
1.7           
Definition of Terms and Variables
The following are the major terms and
variable and their meaning in accordance with their usage in the study.
Education: The
systematic training an institution given to child to learn a living to develop
himself/herself and the society as whole.
Impact: The
extent, influence to which particular parameter affects certain phenomenon.
Socio – Economics: Social and economic activities of the individual group and the society.
Academic performance: The extent to which a learner does well ion the task of knowledge
acquisition concerning literacy and numeracy.



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