IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THE WELL-BEING OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THE WELL-BEING OF  UNIVERSITY STUDENTS  

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents                                                              Pages
COVER PAGE
TITTLE
APPROVAL PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CHAPTER
I
:
 INTRODUCTION
Background of
the study
Statement of the
problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of
the study
Scope of the
study
Research
questions
Hypotheses
CHAPTER
II
:
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual
framework
Theoretical
framework
Review of
related empirical studies
(a) 
concept of physical activity
(b)
History of physical activity and its
impact on the well-being of college and university students
(c) 
Types of physical activities
(d)
Theories of physical activity and
quitting
(e) 
Health effects of physical activity on
individuals
(f)  
Key factors that influence people’s
health
(g) 
An overview of physical fitness
(h)
Physical fitness in relation to
emotional wellness of students
(i)   
Physical fitness in relation to mental
wellness of students
(j)   
Physical fitness in relation to social
health of students
(k)
Benefits of being emotionally and
mentally healthy
(l)   
Key factors that boost personal
resilience
(m) 
Causes of lack of participation in
physical activity among tertiary institution students
(n)
Steps to promote and maintain physical,
mental, emotional and social health among tertiary institution students.
Summary of
literature review
CHAPTER
III

METHODOLOGY
Research design
Area of the
study
Population of
the study
Sample and
sampling technique(s)
Instrument foe
data collection
Validity of the
instrument
Reliability of
the instrument
Administration
of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
REFERENCES 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Physical
activities is the body movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires
energy expenditure, it is any body movement that works your muscles and
requires more energy than resisting, walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga,
and gardening. Also, physical education programme will provide students with
physical activity, opportunities both in and out of school through a
differentiated programme that fosters a lifetime commitment to physical activity
as part of a healthy lifestyle. Physical activity is the daily life exercise
that can be categorized into occupation, sports, conditioning, household, or
other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned,
structured, and repetitive and has a final and intermediate objective to
improve or maintain physical fitness.
        Physical activity is defined as any
bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result into energy
expenditure (Montoye, 2011). The amount of energy required to accomplish an
activity can be measured in kilojoules (KJ) or kilocalories (Kcal).There are
categories of physical activities; those are of light, moderate, or heavy
intensity, those that are moderate or compulsory, or those that are weekday or weekend
activities e.g. Morning exercise called practicum common among College and
University students of Ikere department of Physical and Health Education. 
           Well Being? This simply means
ability to perform physical activities without any illness or diseases such as
headache, stomach and so on. Wellbeing is also the state of being physically,
mentally, emotionally and socially balance.
       Well being refers to diverse and
interconnected dimensions of physical, mental and social well being that extend
beyond the traditional definition of health, it includes choice and activities
aimed at achieving physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a
sense of accomplishment and personal fulfilment (Dishman 2012). Wellbeing
according to David (2014) is the experiencing good feelings, in both body and
mind.   
           
The numerous advantages of participating in physical activities
(Exercise) are: increased efficiency of heart beat and lungs, increase muscle
strength and endurance, maintenance of body weight, and reduction in the risk
of coronary heart diseases. The study was conducted to ascertain student
knowledge on effect of physical activities on their health as well as their
level of participating in physical activities for the purpose of achieving
optimum level of healthiness. Numerous study revealed that physical
activity/exercise is one of the health promoting exercise among several factors
(Ntui, 2000,Insel &Roth, 2004& Ajala 2005).Sedentary or inactive life
is a slow poison to then skeletal, cardiac and visceral muscles which thrive in
activity in general(Ntui, 2000). Any muscle according to Ntui (2000), which is
not exercised, atrophic. This view is supported by Bullock (1992) who stated
that lack of muscle use results in atrophy. Ajala (2005) also posited that the
following health problems were either linked with or made worse by getting too
little exercise: Overweight, feeling tired all the time, shortness of breath,
stomach upsets, headache, backache, weak muscles, high blood pressure  accelerated 
aging, heart diseases, injuries to muscle, ligaments , tendons, injuries
and pains in bones. The author further states that the connection between this
gloomy list of health problems and lack of exercise is simple. The body is like
a finely tuned, complicated machine. If cared for, the different parts keep
working well. If neglected, those parts get creaky and rusty. They break or get
injured more easily. Therefore, it is obvious, that exercise participation
whether for competitive, recreation, fitness rehabilitative purposes are in
consonance with health promotion and wellness goals of the present millennium.
Benefits of physical activity are well documented in literature (Mcglynn,1997,
Ntui, 2000, Kozier etal,2004, & Ajala, 2005). The benefits of physical
activity as revealed by a study of students in a large Midwestern university of
which 77% participants exercised and their reasons were health, maintenance of
fitness, stress reduction, enjoyment and feeling good (Katrina, 2008).
          According to center for Diseases
control (CDC), (1997) International consensus conference on physical activity
guidelines for students recommends that ‘’ all students must b e physically
active daily or nearly everyday, as part of sports, games, work,
transportation, recreation, physical education or planned exerciser in the
context of family, school and community activity. Further more, ‘  students should engage in three or more
section per week of activities that last for 30 minutes or more at a time and
that require moderate vigorous levels of exertion”(Sallis & Parick, 1994).
Despite the benefits, research still indicates that participation in physical
activities is low, moreover, CDC (1996) noted that although students are more
physically active than adults, many young people do not engage in moderate
or  vigorous activity at least 3days in a
week.      
          University students in Nigeria find
themselves in a precious situation where regular physical activity is not built
into the academic programme. Inactive lifestyle has become a threat to several
students. This is because university students are faced with long hours of
cogitation listening to lectures, reading in libraries and browsing on
computers. Moreover, emphasis is placed on producing   sport talented groups who can win laurels
for the institution not only in Nigeria but elsewhere (Okunbor & Agubuike,
2007). There are serious concern raised by several international bodies, World
Health Organisation (WHO),united Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural.(UNESCO), Line of Control (LOC), Centrs for Disease Control and
prevention(CDC) and others) on insufficient amount of appropriate physical and
wellness activities (WHO, 2000; Okunbon & Agubuike, 2007). The level of
participation of such students is not always governed by choice but often by
unequal access to opportunities. The importance of exercise or physical
activity in maintaining physical, psychological and social health cannot be
overemphasis. Students need to be knowledgeable and also participate in exercise
to derive the known benefits. 
Statement of the
problem
The purpose of this review is to provide likely
problems which serves as hindrance for students of College of Education and
University of Nigeria Nsukka students in Ikere from participating in physical
activities.
This is as a result of lack of understanding the
benefits embedded in participating in physical activities like: easy
circulation of blood to various parts of the body especially the brain, heart
and others, prevention of diseases from spreading from one person to another,
diseases like cancer, measles, heart diseases, stroke and typed 2 diabetes.
Promote physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a sense of
accomplishment and personal fulfilment. Increase efficiency of heartbeat and
lungs, increase muscle strength and endurance, reduction of coronary heart diseases
and maintenance of body posture and weight.
Nonchalant attitude of students towards the
participation of physical activities rather they prefer to engage themselves in
social activities like paying visit to seminars house, club and other
ceremonies and party, watching films, chatting like what sup, twitter and face
book. This are what takes away their time and energy.
Health problem of individual also determines their
ability to involve in the participation of physical activities, health problem
like: heart born, asthma,sickle cell and many more. 
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact
of physical activities on the well being of College of Education and University
of Nigeria Nsukka students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Specifically
the objectives of the study are:
1.     to
find out if physical activities have any impact on the physical fitness of
college and university students in Ikere.
2.     to
investigate if participating in physical activities have impact on the
emotional wellness of students of college and university .
3.     to
verify whether participating in physical activities have impact on the social
life of college and university students of Ikere
4.     to
investigate if involving in physical exercise have impact on the mental
wellness of college and university students of Ikere.
Significance of the
study
This research work will help to enlighten the
students of college and university in Ikere on the benefits of physical
activities on their well being, thereby producing a change in behaviour. It is
also hoped that the findings of this study if published in newspaper and
journals, it will give curriculum planners adequate direction as to the health
topics. This needs to be specially emphasized in the health education
curriculum. Also, parents and teachers in schools can benefit through seminar
on the participation in physical activities such as judging round the field,
walking round the school compound for about three (3) to four (4) time daily.
This study as well will be useful to community members and secondary school
students: such as development of body posture, brain capacity, reduce obesity
among students and the community people.
       This study as well will be useful to
community members either literate or illiterate, young and old, mature or
immature as a whole by broadening their horizon. If the result is published,
the way of ensuring the benefit from parents, teachers, students, workers and
illiterate which will make them to be able to develop interest in participating
in physical activities which will help them to perform better in the area of
studies, occupation e. g excellence academic performance, farming, business men
and women, civil servant and every individual in the community. It also helps
the researchers to have more knowledge about the impact of physical activities
on the well-being of institution students with influence.
The scope of the study
The study investigates the impact of physical
activities on the well-being of College of Education and University of Nigeria
Nsukka students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
This
study covers College of Education and University of Nigeria Nsuka in Ikere in
line with College of Education Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The
above named students was used as respondents, self-developed structured
questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The research involves
the independent variable of physical activities and the dependent variable of
wellness of College of Education and University of Nigeria Nsukka students in
Ikere which include: physical fitness, emotional wellness, social life and
mental wellness. The analysis of data was done by using descriptive statistics
of frequency counts, and percentage to analyse demographic data and inferential
statistics of chi-square (x2) will be used to analyse the hypotheses at 0.05
level of significance. 
Research questions
The
study seeks to answer the following questions:
1.     Does
physical activities have any impact on the physical fitness of College of
Education and University of Nigeria Nsukka students in Ikere Local Government Area
of Ekiti State?
2.     Does
participating in physical activities have any impact on the emotional wellness
of College of Education and University of Nigeria Nsukka students of Ikere
Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
3.     Does
physical activities have impact on the social life of College of Education and
University of Nigeria Nsukka students of Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
4.     Does
physical activities have impact on the mental wellness of College of Education
and University of Nigeria Nsukka students of Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State?  
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the
purpose of this study:     
1.     Physical
activities does not have any significant impact on the physical fitness of
College of Education and university students of Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State.
2.     Participating
in physical activities does not have any significant impact on the emotional
wellness of College of Education and university students of Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
3.     Physical
activities does not have any significant impact on the social life of College
of Education and university students of Ikere Local Government Area of State.
4.     Physical
activities does not have any significant impact on the mental wellness of
College of Education  and university
students of Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
CHAPTER II:
REVIEW
OF LITERATURE
The
review of literature was done under the following subheading
Conceptual
framework
Theoretical
framework
Review
of related empirical studies
(a)  concept
of physical activities
(b) History
of physical activities and its impact on the well-being of College of Education
and University of Nigeria Nsukka students in Ikere.
(c)  Types
of physical activities
(d) Theories
of physical activities and quitting
(e)  Health
effects of physical activities on individuals
(f)   Key
factors that influence people’s health
(g)  An
overview of physical fitness
(h) Physical
fitness in relation to emotional wellness of students
(i)    Physical
fitness in relation to mental wellness of students
(j)    Physical
fitness in relation to social health of students
(k) Benefits
of being emotionally and mentally healthy
(l)    Key
factors that boost personal resilience
(m)  Causes
of lack of participation in physical activities among tertiary institution
students
(n) Steps
to promote and maintain physical, mental, emotional and social health among
tertiary institution students.
Summary
of literature review



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