IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE MANAGEMENT OF STATE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the Impact of Information and Communication Technology on The Management of State Tertiary Institutions in Niger State, Nigeria. To guide the study, five

(5)    objectives were formulated which include determine the impact of information and communication technology (ITC) on communication in tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria, evaluate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on records keeping in tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria, assess the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on educational research in tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria in line with stated objectives five (5) research questions, five (5) null hypotheses and five (5) basic assumptions were raised for the study. Relevant and related literatures and empirical study were reviewed. Descriptive research design was used for the study with the total population of 15,308 made up of 50 leaders of institutions, 8000 academic staffs and 7258 non-academic staffs. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study with the total number of 365. Self-developed questionnaire which comprised of fifty (50) structured item statements were modified on a five (5) point Likert scale which was used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was validated by the researcher‘s supervisor. Plot study was conducted in two schools to ascertain reliability and reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained. Data collected for this study was analyzed through frequency and simple percentage for demographic data, descriptive statistic was used to analyse the bio- data of the respondents, weighted mean otherwise called decision was used to answer the five (5) research questions; while one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistical tool was used to test the five (5) hypotheses postulated for this study at 0.5 level of significance.The findings of the study revealed that, ICT is very much in use and has facilitated Communication between the management; and other staff in the institution and also, through ICT records in higher institutions are not only properly kept but are effectively saved in retrievable gadgets for future use in Niger State. It is therefore concluded that, the advent of ICT has brought about communication exposure, through ICT the era of manual search for document, students‘ information and inadequacy of space for shelves and files have become a thing of the past in higher institutions in Niger State. The study therefore recommended that, more ICT facilities should be provided in the required quantity and quality in all higher institutions for adequate educational research; also, there is the need to train and retrain staff on proper record keeping, maintenance culture and also for proper decision making process through ICT, in all higher institutions in Niger State – Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

All over the world, education has been recognized as a critical tool for effecting national development. In fact, education is a catalyst for social, economic and personal changes. One of the changes and innovations which the federal government of Nigeria adopted in her development efforts is the integration of information and communication technology into all levels of the education system.

 

The objectives of the federal government of Nigeria on Information Technology (NIT) as highlighted by Yusuf (2005) are: Making Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) mandatory at all levels of education, Developing ICTs curricula for primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Provision of study grants and scholarship on ICT, Training the trainer scheme for National Youth Service Corps members. ICT capacity development at zonal, state and local levels. Information and Communication Technology is a concept that refers to as a computer based facilities used by organization personnel to record, transmit, generate, retrieve, impact knowledge and process information and communication needs (Asiyai, 2010).

ICT is any technology that students and teachers use to organize, create, manipulate, solve, find, draw, design, synthesize, share, collaborate, modify, analyze, evaluate and disseminate information. ICTs include internet, computer, hyper net software and hardware, network, data projector and other devices that convert information into digital forms. In this era of digitalization, the flow of information through the satellite and internet enhances rapid dissemination of knowledge ―which has become the most important factor in economic development in the 21st century‖ (Saint, Hartnett and Strasser, 2003), it becomes imperative for ICT to be applied to teaching and learning in schools across the universe.

ICT has been recognized as effective for use in the education industry as an effective delivery mechanism (Westera, and Sloep, 2001). They maintained that ICTs can provide an efficient delivery mechanism of educational services by supplementing conventional delivery mechanism. The emergence of ICTs has generated lots of changes and innovations in all sectors of the economy across the globe. As a result, of the impact of ICTs, the whole world has been transformed into a global village. According to Johnson (2007), the prevalence and rapid development of ICTs have transformed human society from information technology age into knowledge age.

As noted by Omeniyi, Agu, and Odimegwu. (2007), the education industry appears to be the major sector where ICT integration and effective application could extend massively to other areas of life. This assertion presupposes that educational institutions in Nigeria be technology-based with teachers and students being information and technology literates so as to facilitate effective application of ICTs to other areas of life. As a result of the use of information and communication technologies, distance education became acceptable worldwide as a standard alternative mode of education (Ojokheta and Adepoju, 2007). Most developed communities have invested largely in centralized media systems that enable information to be broadcast to their schools at one time. Schools in such communities have a common cabled computer and media network. Teachers monitor activities rather than directing, in order to encourage creativity in technology (Omeniyi, Agu and Odimegwu, 2007).

However, teaching approaches and pedagogy used in Tertiary Institutions are changing from the traditional Oxbridge model of master-learner or teacher centered approach to a learner centered approach of teaching, where the learner controls his or her learning (Reinhart, 2008). Learning environments of Tertiary Institutions in developed countries are often supported by ICTs and continue to evolve to include more active learning through student participation but reverse in the case in developed as well as developing countries particularly, Nigeria. The focus here is on the quality and availability of ICT in the management of higher institutions of learning. ICT offer flexibility, engage and motivate learners and therefore encourage a learner centered approach to teaching. The use of ICT has evolved from the simple e-learning systems of the 1960s to the more collaborative learning using modern technologies where students are not just passive learners but also generators of knowledge (Omeniyi, Agu and Odimegwu, 2007).

1.2         Statement of the Problem

It appears that, developing countries had been focusing on using ICT as a tool to develop the society. When we look at experiences gained in academic perspective, we will find that ICT is more than a tool, but a foundation which can be used to build futures; especially in the area of education. More so, one cannot deny the fact that every nation will continue to compete in a global economy that demands innovation.

ICT has a central role in maintaining the quality of higher education in Niger State and it serves as a basis for competitive advantage of the Tertiary Institutions. However, education is being considered as the driving force of economic and social developments in any country. Looking at this, it is necessary to find ways to make education of good quality, accessible and affordable to all, using the latest technology available.

There have been a number of factors impeding the wholesale uptake of ICT in education across all sectors. Some of these factors could be shortage of funds to support the purchase of the technology, inadequate training among established teaching practitioners, inadequate motivation and need among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools. However, it should be noted that in recent times, factors have emerged which have strengthened and encouraged moves to adopt ICT into classroom and learning settings. These have included a growing need to explore efficiencies in terms of program delivery, the opportunities for

flexible delivery provided by ICTs, the capacity of technology to provide support for customized educational programs to meet the needs of individual learners and the growing use of the Internet and www as tools for information access and communication.

However, despite the relevance or positive impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on management of educational institutions, it appears there are still obstacles connected with the application of ICT in the institutions of higher learning particularly in Niger State, Nigeria. Some of these obstacles includes inadequate training and retraining, poor maintenance culture, the misuse of internet facilities, erratic power supply, poor communication channel, poor record keeping of documents, unskilled staff, lack of proper use of ICT facilities in decision making process, shortage of ICT facility supply, wear and tear with and most of the staff in the institutions have little or no knowledge of how to use ICT to carryout researches. This is what prompted this study.

1.3         Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this research are to:

  1. Determine the impact of information and communication technology on communication in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria;
  2. evaluate the impact of information and communication technology on records keeping in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria;
  3. assess the impact of information and communication technology on educational research in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria;
  4. determine the impact of information and communication technology on decision making in the management of state tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria; and
  5. determine the impact of information and communication technology facilities on maintenance culture the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

Research Questions

This research work seeks to ask the following questions:

  1. Is there any impact of Information and communication technology (ICT) on communication in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria?
  2. Does Information and communication technology (ICT) impact on record keeping in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria?
  3. Is there any impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on educational research in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria?
  4. What impact does information and communication technology (ICT) have on decision making in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria?
  5. What impact does information and communication technology (ICT) facilities have on maintenance culture in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria?

1.5         Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are postulated for the purpose of this study:

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of managers of tertiary institutions, academic and non-academic staff on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on communication in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on record keeping in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

 

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Ho3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on educational research in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on decision making in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

 

Ho5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) facilities on maintenance culture in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

 

1.6         Basic Assumptions

The following are basic assumptions about this research study:

  1. Whenever there is adequate provision of information and communication technology (ICT), effective communication will be enhanced in tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.
  2. If there is sufficient and qualitative information and communication technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions, there will be effective records keeping in Niger State, Nigeria.
  3. Effective information and communication technology (ICT) will promote effective educational research in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.
  4. Whenever there is availability of information and communication technology (ICT), decision making will be effective enhanced in the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

 

  1. If there are trained personnel and adequate information and communication technology (ICT) facilities, maintenance culture will be enhanced in the management Tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria.

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

This is important in a number of ways to many people. The findings of this study will be beneficial to the managers of Tertiary Institutions, Academic and non-Academic staff as well as students and researchers in the various institutions in Niger State, Nigeria. The information from the findings of this study will be useful to the managers on functions, importance and value of ICT and why they should be adopted in the management of their institutions.

Furthermore, this research work is significant to supervisors in education, educational planners, curriculum experts and/or developers as well as all other stakeholders in education sector. It will assist stakeholders in education to perform their duties and roles more effectively and sufficiently towards achieving the stated goals of tertiary institutions particularly in Niger State. It will again serve as basis for budgeting and procurement of ICT facilities in tertiary institutions in Niger State.

 

1.8         Scope of the Study

The study titled evaluation of the impact of information and communication technology on the management of tertiary institutions in Niger State, Nigeria. The Study covered all the State Public Tertiary Institutions in Niger State which includes; all the institutional Managers, Academic and Non-academic staff. Nevertheless, the research work does not include Federal and Private Tertiary Institutions situated within and outside the Niger State, Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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