IMPACT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

IMPACT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
English language has become one of the most important Languages in
the world. It is widely used in all areas of human endeavour, nationally and
internationally. The global use of English Language is found in television
programmes and in the internet. There are more websites made in English than in
other language. Realizing the importance of English, many people have taken it
as a second Language. Since English speaking countries are very important part
of global economy and its advancement, other political and country leaders must
either learn English or find someone who understands English to interpret for
them. Therefore, politics is one arena where English is important. The English
Language according to Obanya, (1982) fills a huge communication gap. It helps
to facilitate contact between Nigerians of diverse Language groups. The English
language is the first Language on the school curriculum; hence it is regarded
as a core subject. A credit in the English Language is considered compulsory
for the award of many of the country’s certificates. According to Ahmed (1999)
the English Language is an indispensable Language of communication in Nigeria
at both personal, national and international levels.
However,
the teaching of English Language is associated with a lot of problems.
It takes a long time to learn a new grammar system and thousands
of new words. It also takes a lot of practice to develop listening, speaking,
reading and writing skills in a new Language. English Language is taught
everyday in schools time table and students’ performances at the examinations
are still not satisfactory, Ahmed (1999).
The National Policy on Education (NPE)
(2004), in Nigeria emphasizes that children should be properly taught. The
policy is also of the opinion that teaching and learning in Nigeria should lead
to students’ acquisition of skills and competencies geared towards solving
their problems and that of the society.
The situation of general poor performance in English Language
spreads through all levels of Nigeria’s educational ladder including primary,
secondary and post-primary institutions (Keston 1999). In the view of Osunde
and Ogiegbaen in the West African Examination Council Chief Examiner’s Report
(2005), student’s poor performance in English Language is a long standing one.
Annual reports from the West African Examination Councils (WAEC) (2005) reveal
woeful performances from students who have made enrolment for the English
Language examination a yearly ritual. It is worrisome to note that the
performance of these students have continued to deteriorate year after year in
English Language despite all stake holder’s effort. The West African
Examination Councils (WAEC) reports reveal that most candidates who take the
Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) lack foundation in English grammar
and usage. This implies that they are not well taught by their teachers.
The situation is pathetic, as a lot of factors may be responsible
for the poor performance in the English Language examinations. One of these
factors is the traditional content /knowledge oriented curriculum, which is
still very much practised today. Teachers seem to have clung fast to the old
fashioned ways and have refused to embrace the new trend of the total
curriculum experience of the modern teacher. A modern teacher is a teacher who
has seen the need to incorporate Computer based learning  material in teaching and
learning process. Onwuka, (1988) had criticizes the content /knowledge
–oriented
curriculum like the one practiced by the teachers of the English
Language. Such curriculum does not go beyond merely imparting knowledge to the
students. Teachers have to go by the
new technology, that is the use of computer in teaching and
learning for a better performance.
A computer is an electronic device that accepts and stores input
data and process the data and produces outputs as a result of step by step set
instructions. Woherem,(2004) asserts that computers are marked by accuracy of
results, speed in operation and versatility in operations; it has found
application in all areas of life. However, the slow pace of both computer
acquisition and literacy is having profound negative effect in secondary
schools and other organizations. According to Anigbogu (2002), the word
computer is a house hold name in modern technology in the developed countries
in the world, but in Nigeria, the technology is still sounding strange to many
people. According to Mccormick (1993) computers can be
used  to diversify, develop and improve the pedagogical relation of
teaching and learning.
The computer is a technological innovation under the control of
stored programme that can perform some of the intellectual role of man even
beyond man capability, (Bada et al 2009). Reith (1993) defines computer as an
electronic device which stores information on disc or magnetic tape; analyses
it and produces information as required from the data on the tape. Adekomi
(2001) defines computer as a combination of related devices capable of solving
problems by accepting data, performing described operations on a data, and
supplying the results of these operations.
Computers, irrespective of type and size have five basic parts
namely, input unit, memory units, Control Units (CU) Arithmetic and Logic Units
(ALU) and output units. Both ALU and CU are joined into one piece of hardware
known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which is the brain of the computer.
According to Adekomi (2001), the primary

functions of computers are inputting
and storing information, processing information and outputting information.
Innovations appearing today indicate that the world is dependent on computer
technology (Ajibade, 2006) computer is a great learning tool for both young and
old. According to Baugher (1999). In Language, a computer can present words to
be spelt, sound to be made, instructions to be followed.
Computer can be used to evaluate students’ performance and direct
students backward, forward, and sideways for appropriate learning activities,
(Bada, 2009). Other potentials of computer in instruction identified by
Abimbade (1997) are as follow:
·       Computer helps students to learn at their own pace.
·       It produces significant time saving over conventional classroom
instruction.
·       It allows student’s control over the rate and sequence of their
learning.
·       It gives appropriate feedback.
·       It promotes individualized instructions.
·       It provides a more positive affective climate especially for
slower learners.
·       It provides appropriate record-keeping and thereby monitors
student’s progress.
·       It gives more information to teachers.
·       It motivates students.
The success of the integration of
computer into the teaching and learning of English
Language depends mostly on the level of awareness by the teachers
and the actual utilization of computer in the classroom. The use of computer in
teaching and learning is important. Therefore, the awareness and usage of
computer by teachers of English Language right from secondary school become
necessary, (Fakeye 2010).
Most researches by experts reveal lack
of computers for use in schools. English Language being a core subject, will
need adequate availability of computers for all teachers and students, hence
the awareness of computer usage to teachers and its availability is very
important. Several strategies have been proposed and adopted over the years
which have helped in one way or the other but have not led to improved
performances of students in English Language. (Fakeye, 2010) went further to
report that the availability of computer and its connectivity to the internet
tend to non-existence in virtually all the schools. The level of use of computer
for teaching depends on the availability of computer. Anigbogu (2003 opines
that not being aware of what computer can do limits teacher’s ability to desire
the use of computers even when they have serious problems beyond the competence
of conventional technologies. Bluhim (1987) opines that educational
administrators were scarcely aware of the use of the technology as a tool for
decision-making. Training is needed if the potential impact of ICT in
educational organizations is to be realized.
Therefore, the benefits of computer can only be enjoyed by a
computer literate population, that is, teachers, students and the public. In a
bid to achieve this, the federal government made computer education one of the
subjects to be offered in both junior and senior secondary schools (Federal
Republic of Nigeria, 1998). Moreover, in May 2000, the minister of science and
technology introduced Fit it -yourself (FIY) computer assembly kits to be used
in both secondary schools and tertiary institutions (Ayeoyenikan, 2000). Since
its introduction, there have been relatively few studies on the level of
teacher awareness and extent of utilization of teachers and computer use.
Computer awareness refers to the ways in which computers may have
an impact on education. Computer awareness programmes familiarizes the
students/ teachers with 
computer technology and the basic principles on which computer works
including some
elementary basic programming (Yusuf, 1998).
There is need to examine teachers’ awareness of the extent of utilization
of computer such as in instructional delivery process (e.g the use of computer
–assistant language learning). In modernized world, almost every aspect of
people’s life is affected in some ways by computer. The development of
Information Technology (IT) has spread through the application of computers in
learning process, which is generally known as Computer Assisted Learning (CAL).
A computer is used for the sake of facilitating people in learning, such as
learning language. Computer is only a tool and a medium. Hence, its ability to
perform is dependent on the users. In this case, the computer is an
intermediary, it is merely a part of the entire learning process, (Hartoyo,
2008).
Computer
based learning  (CBL) is an approach to   Language
teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an
aid for presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned,
usually including substantial interactive elements.
Computer based learning  (CBL) studies the role and the use of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in second language learning
and teaching. Computer based learning  (CBL) programme presents a stimulus to which
the learner must respond. The stimulus may be presented in any combination of
text, still lineages, sound and motion video. The learner responds by typing at
the keyboard, pointing and clicking with the mouse, or
speaking into a microphone. The computer offers a feedback, indicating whether
the learner’s response is right or wrong, and in the more sophisticated CBL
programme, attempting to analyze the learner’s response and to pinpoint errors.
For many years, foreign language teachers have used the computer
to provide supplementary exercise. In recent years, advances in computer
technology have motivated teachers to reassess the computer and consider it a
valuable part of daily foreign language learning. Interactivity is a crucial
strength of the new technology. The computer is interactive by virtue of the
fact that the user can gain control over learning and therefore becomes an
active participant in learning process. Interactivity also allows the instant
feedback from the computer. The interactivity of computer
makes it especially suited for implementing learner- centred teaching method.
Warschauer (1998) asserts that computer makes any information needed widely and
easily available irrespective of distance, computer is indeed a motivator to
teaching and learning. However, this current study is interested in finding out
the  effect of Computer based learning on
students academic performance in junior secondary schools students  in English language
The use of computer is predicted to the motive intentions to use
them. These motive intentions will be influence by the beliefs of the users
about the usefulness and ease of use. (Ajzen, 1988). According to (Davis, 1989)
asserts that teachers behaviour use or reject computer is determined by his
intention to perform such behaviour i.e negative or positive subjective norms.
This implies perceived social pressures from parents, educational reforms, and
students. The presence of motivated teachers having a positive attitude towards
the
consequences or outcomes of computer use, results in a higher rate
of usage.
However, there are teachers who are still using the traditional
method of teaching which is basically teacher centered. Students are passive
listeners while the teachers actively do the talking alone in traditional
method. The learners are undoubtedly cheated because they are expected to be
involved in the teaching and learning process which is lacking in the
traditional teaching method.
The student, who actually wants to learn English language, needs
to take charge of his/her own language learning instead of just passively
listening to the teacher. The student must be able to carry out a plan for
developing the language skills whether the teacher is there or not. This can be
done more effectively through the use of computer which assists learning
with ease. In the digital era, the development in  various aspects of computer technology has
gone beyond imagination and expectation. Computer has a lot of
application in the field of education; it is useful in the teaching and
learning processes. Computer literacy is very much needed for teachers as well
as learners. Computer improves both teaching and students’ valuable connections
with teachers, other schools and a wide network of professionals around the
globe . Creating computer awareness for teachers is essential. The availability
and utilization of computers in schools is another important factor to consider
if there must be any meaningful benefit in the use of computer to teach.
Statement of the Problem
In this contemporary age where the society has gone digital and
computerized, it is surprising that teachers still use the traditional method
of teaching the English language in most secondary schools. This method is the
type that the teacher actively do the talking alone with the chalkboard and the
students passively listen whether learning is talking place or not. There has
been consistent decline in students performance in the Senior School
Certificate Examination (SSCE) and West African Examination Councils (WAEC)
probably because of the methods teachers use in the teaching of the English
language.
In this information age, computer has made a triumphant entry into
education in the past decade, it has brought significant benefits to teachers
and students alike. The search for an appropriate teaching of the English
language has been on for many years and computer has been proven very useful in
this regard.
The use of computer for better teaching remains impeccable. The
English language teachers are teaching everyday as stipulated on the school
time- table. At –times students are being engaged in Extra –Mural Classes, yet
the performance of students in the English language remains poor. The situation
in Jaligo metropols seems the same.
There has been a world –wide demand for
a re-orientation of teaching and learning towards greater use of ICT
facilities. The successes of such demand, however, depends largely on the level
of awareness of computer use by English language teachers, computer
availability and its actual use in classroom instructions.
The problem of this study, therefore, is to find out how the
inclusion of Computer based learning  materials could influence positively the
teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in —————–metropolis.
Research Questions
The
following research questions directed this study
1.    
Does  Computer based learning have effect of  students academic performance in English?
2.    
To what
extent are computers available for use in the teaching of the English language?
3.    
What is the
extent of awareness of teachers on the use of computer in teaching English as a
second languages?
4.    
How competent are English language
teachers in computer software for teaching?
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of Computer
based learning on students academic performance in English language
       The study specifically seeks to
1)   
The effect
of Computer based learning on students academic performance
2)   
Examine the
extent of awareness of teachers on the use of computer bases learning in
teaching English as a second languages?
3)   
Find out
the extent computers are available for use in the teaching of the English
language?
4)    To find out how competent are English language teachers in
computer software for teaching?
Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be
overemphasized 

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