**EFFECTS**

OF USING MATHEMATICS LABORATORY IN TEACHING JSS III STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS

OF USING MATHEMATICS LABORATORY IN TEACHING JSS III STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS

**CHAPTER**

ONE

ONE

**INTRODUCTION**

**Background**

of Study

of Study

Mathematics is the foundation of science and

technology and the functional role of mathematics to science and technology is

multifaceted and multifarious that no area of science, technology and business enterprise

escapes its application (Okereke, 2013). Ukeje (2010) described mathematics as

the mirror of civilization in all the centuries of painstaking calculation, and

the most basic discipline for any person who would be truly educated in any

science and in many other endeavours.

technology and the functional role of mathematics to science and technology is

multifaceted and multifarious that no area of science, technology and business enterprise

escapes its application (Okereke, 2013). Ukeje (2010) described mathematics as

the mirror of civilization in all the centuries of painstaking calculation, and

the most basic discipline for any person who would be truly educated in any

science and in many other endeavours.

Mathematics is

the study of quantity, space, structure, and change.

the study of quantity, space, structure, and change.

Mathematicians seek out patterns and

formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of

conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to

convince other mathematicians of their validity.

formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of

conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to

convince other mathematicians of their validity.

Mathematics Laboratory is a place where students can

learn and explore mathematical concepts and verify mathematical facts and

theorems through a variety of activities using different materials. These

activities may be carried out by the teacher or the students to explore, to

learn, to stimulate interest and develop favourable attitude towards

mathematics. (Igbokwe 2014).

learn and explore mathematical concepts and verify mathematical facts and

theorems through a variety of activities using different materials. These

activities may be carried out by the teacher or the students to explore, to

learn, to stimulate interest and develop favourable attitude towards

mathematics. (Igbokwe 2014).

Despite the importance placed on mathematics,

researchers (Odili, 2014; Salau, 2015; Amazigo, 2010; Agwagah, 2011; Betiku,

2012; Obioma, 2015; Maduabum and Odili, 2013; Okereke, 2012) had observed that

students lack interest in the subject and perform poorly in it. Ukeje (2012)

observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely hated and tough

understood subject in secondary school, students particularly girls run away

from the subject.

researchers (Odili, 2014; Salau, 2015; Amazigo, 2010; Agwagah, 2011; Betiku,

2012; Obioma, 2015; Maduabum and Odili, 2013; Okereke, 2012) had observed that

students lack interest in the subject and perform poorly in it. Ukeje (2012)

observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely hated and tough

understood subject in secondary school, students particularly girls run away

from the subject.

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) chief

examiners [2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016] consistently reported candidates’ lack

of skill in answering almost all the questions asked in general mathematics.

WAEC Chief Examiners [2013, 2015] further observed that candidates were weak in

Geometry of circles and 3- dimensional problems. According to their reports,

most candidates avoid questions on 3-dimensional problem, when they attempt

geometry questions; only few of the candidates showed a clear understanding of

the problem in their working.

examiners [2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016] consistently reported candidates’ lack

of skill in answering almost all the questions asked in general mathematics.

WAEC Chief Examiners [2013, 2015] further observed that candidates were weak in

Geometry of circles and 3- dimensional problems. According to their reports,

most candidates avoid questions on 3-dimensional problem, when they attempt

geometry questions; only few of the candidates showed a clear understanding of

the problem in their working.

WAEC [2014] also reported candidates’ weakness in

Algebraic expression and word problems among others. Obioma (2015), Obodo

(2014) and Okereke (2013) reported gender as a significant factor in

mathematics achievement and Onwioduokit and Akinbobola (2015) reported it as a

significant factor in physics achievement when physics students are taught with

advance organizers. However Okonkwo (2011) reported gender as non-significant

when students are taught with tangram puzzle game. Okereke (2013) attributed

students’ poor performance to factors such as the society view that mathematics

is difficult, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of mathematics laboratory

and lack of incentive.

Algebraic expression and word problems among others. Obioma (2015), Obodo

(2014) and Okereke (2013) reported gender as a significant factor in

mathematics achievement and Onwioduokit and Akinbobola (2015) reported it as a

significant factor in physics achievement when physics students are taught with

advance organizers. However Okonkwo (2011) reported gender as non-significant

when students are taught with tangram puzzle game. Okereke (2013) attributed

students’ poor performance to factors such as the society view that mathematics

is difficult, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of mathematics laboratory

and lack of incentive.

The abstract nature of mathematics should be reduced

through demonstration and practical methods. Agwagah (2012) observed that the

problem of ineffective teaching can be tackled through planned and intelligent

application of the mathematics laboratory. Thus Agwagah recommended the use of

laboratory approach to the study of mathematics. The method of drill and verbal

recitation makes learning boring and lacks motivation for further learning.

through demonstration and practical methods. Agwagah (2012) observed that the

problem of ineffective teaching can be tackled through planned and intelligent

application of the mathematics laboratory. Thus Agwagah recommended the use of

laboratory approach to the study of mathematics. The method of drill and verbal

recitation makes learning boring and lacks motivation for further learning.

Srinivasa (2014) had earlier recommended the use of

mathematics laboratory in teaching mathematics. According to Srinivasa, this

will lead the students to formation of concepts out of experiences with

discrete objects. In this case the vague theories and imaginary objects take

real shape and the students understand better and perform better. It is

important therefore to consider strategies that may help to improve the

performance, with the view of considering their effect on teaching and learning

of mathematics. Such strategies include the use of mathematics laboratory

(Ogunkunle, 2010).

mathematics laboratory in teaching mathematics. According to Srinivasa, this

will lead the students to formation of concepts out of experiences with

discrete objects. In this case the vague theories and imaginary objects take

real shape and the students understand better and perform better. It is

important therefore to consider strategies that may help to improve the

performance, with the view of considering their effect on teaching and learning

of mathematics. Such strategies include the use of mathematics laboratory

(Ogunkunle, 2010).

Mathematics

laboratory is a place where students can learn and explore various mathematical

concepts and verify different mathematical facts and theories using varieties

of activities and material (Igbokwe, 2014). The use of mathematics laboratory

helps to integrate theory and practical work in mathematics teaching and learning.

Ohuche (2012) advocated the need for moderately equipped mathematics

laboratories. Ogunkunle (2010) itemized the advantages of using mathematics

laboratory which include;

laboratory is a place where students can learn and explore various mathematical

concepts and verify different mathematical facts and theories using varieties

of activities and material (Igbokwe, 2014). The use of mathematics laboratory

helps to integrate theory and practical work in mathematics teaching and learning.

Ohuche (2012) advocated the need for moderately equipped mathematics

laboratories. Ogunkunle (2010) itemized the advantages of using mathematics

laboratory which include;

1. Display mathematical information of Avenue for experimentation through

practical work

practical work

2. Pool

of storage of mathematical materials for easy access

of storage of mathematical materials for easy access

3. Removing

abstractness and increasing effective teaching and learning.

abstractness and increasing effective teaching and learning.

Based on the advantages of mathematics laboratory,

it is expected that teaching and learning of mathematics with mathematics

laboratory may help to reduce the abstract nature of the subject and draw the

students to follow. Hence, this study

intends to investigate the impact of mathematics laboratory for effective

teaching and learning of mathematics in Junior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti

Local Government Area of Ekiti state.

it is expected that teaching and learning of mathematics with mathematics

laboratory may help to reduce the abstract nature of the subject and draw the

students to follow. Hence, this study

intends to investigate the impact of mathematics laboratory for effective

teaching and learning of mathematics in Junior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti

Local Government Area of Ekiti state.

**Statement of Problem**

Evidence of poor performance in mathematics by

secondary school students point to the fact that the most desired

technological, scientific and business application of mathematics cannot be

sustained. This makes it paramount to seek for a strategy for teaching

mathematics that aims at improving its understanding and performance by

students.

secondary school students point to the fact that the most desired

technological, scientific and business application of mathematics cannot be

sustained. This makes it paramount to seek for a strategy for teaching

mathematics that aims at improving its understanding and performance by

students.

Evidence abound (Srinivasa, 2012; Ogunkunle, 2010),

that lack of mathematics laboratory and Mathematics teachers non-use of

laboratory technique in teaching

mathematics is one of the major

factors that contribute to poor

achievement in mathematics

by secondary school students. Therefore the study is designed to find

out the impact of mathematics laboratory for effective teaching and learning of

mathematics in Junior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of

Ekiti state.

that lack of mathematics laboratory and Mathematics teachers non-use of

laboratory technique in teaching

mathematics is one of the major

factors that contribute to poor

achievement in mathematics

by secondary school students. Therefore the study is designed to find

out the impact of mathematics laboratory for effective teaching and learning of

mathematics in Junior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of

Ekiti state.

**Purpose of the Study**

The purpose of this study is to investigate the

effects of using mathematics laboratory in teaching JSS III students in

mathematics. Specifically, the study sought the following;

effects of using mathematics laboratory in teaching JSS III students in

mathematics. Specifically, the study sought the following;

1. The

difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with mathematics

laboratory and those taught with lecture method.

difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with mathematics

laboratory and those taught with lecture method.

2. The

difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

3. The

difference in the achievement of private and public mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

difference in the achievement of private and public mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

**4.**

The difference in the achievement

of single school and mixed school mathematics students taught with mathematics

laboratory.

**Significance of the**

study

study

The findings of the study will be useful to lecturers and tutors when training

mathematics teachers who are to teach mathematics topics when teaching using

mathematics laboratory as it will enable both teachers and students understand

the practical aspect of mathematics. It will also be beneficial to the policy

formulators in the Ministry of Education and Nigeria Institute of Curriculum

Development as it will help in constructing appropriate and standard

mathematics laboratory for Junior Secondary School (JSS) students.

mathematics teachers who are to teach mathematics topics when teaching using

mathematics laboratory as it will enable both teachers and students understand

the practical aspect of mathematics. It will also be beneficial to the policy

formulators in the Ministry of Education and Nigeria Institute of Curriculum

Development as it will help in constructing appropriate and standard

mathematics laboratory for Junior Secondary School (JSS) students.

The finding draws the attention of mathematics

laboratories that are available for use in teaching mathematics and provoke the

Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development and other commercial publishers to

come up with good and standard infrastructures of mathematics laboratory to be

used in mathematics teaching and learning. The practical value of mathematics

will enable the students understand its concept while the theory of behind teaching

and learning of mathematics will enable the learners to logically understand some

abstract aspects of mathematics.

laboratories that are available for use in teaching mathematics and provoke the

Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development and other commercial publishers to

come up with good and standard infrastructures of mathematics laboratory to be

used in mathematics teaching and learning. The practical value of mathematics

will enable the students understand its concept while the theory of behind teaching

and learning of mathematics will enable the learners to logically understand some

abstract aspects of mathematics.

**Scope of the Study**

This study is limited to some randomly selected

Junior Secondary school Students in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti

State. This study will be conducted with Junior Secondary Class Three (JSS III)

Mathematics students in the Local Government Area.

Junior Secondary school Students in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti

State. This study will be conducted with Junior Secondary Class Three (JSS III)

Mathematics students in the Local Government Area.

**Research Questions**

The

following research questions were raised to guide the study:

following research questions were raised to guide the study:

1. What

is the difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with

mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method?

is the difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with

mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method?

2. What

is the difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students

taught with mathematics laboratory?

is the difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students

taught with mathematics laboratory?

3. What

is the difference in the achievement of private and public mathematics students

taught with mathematics laboratory?

is the difference in the achievement of private and public mathematics students

taught with mathematics laboratory?

**4.**

What is the difference in the

achievement of single school and mixed school mathematics students taught with

mathematics laboratory?

**Hypotheses**

The following hypotheses were formulated from the

stated research questions above and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

stated research questions above and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

1. There

is no significant difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with

mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method

is no significant difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with

mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method

2. There

is no significant difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics

students taught with mathematics laboratory.

is no significant difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics

students taught with mathematics laboratory.

3. There

is no significant difference in the achievement of private and public

mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory.

is no significant difference in the achievement of private and public

mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory.

4.

There is no significant difference in

the achievement of single school and mixed school mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

There is no significant difference in

the achievement of single school and mixed school mathematics students taught

with mathematics laboratory.

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