GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AS AN ANTIDOTE TO OUTBREAK AND SPREAD OF EBOLA VIRUS AMONG CITIZENRY IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER
ONE
Background of the study
          The issue of
Ebola virus diseases EVD also Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever or EHF or simply Ebola is
a disease of humans other primates caused by Ebola virus signs and symptoms
typically start between two ways and three weeks after contracting the virus
with fever. Some throat and muscular pain, headaches, vomiting, diarrhea and
rash usually follow along with decreased function of the liver and kidney, at
this time some people begin to bleed internally and externally. The disease has
a high risk of death killing between 25 and 50 percent of those infected with
the disease. This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss and
typically follows six to sixteen days after a symptom appear.
Statement
of the problem
          The
major objective of this study is to know much about the spread of the virus by
direct contact with body fluids such as blood of an infected human or other
animals. This may also occur through contact with an item recently contaminated
with bodily fluids spreads of the disease through the air between primates
including humans has not been documented in either laboratory or natural
conditions. Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may still
carry the virus for several weeks to months.
          Fruit, bats are believed to be the
normal carriers in nature and are able to spread the virus without being
affected by it. Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis
and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested
for viral RND viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the
diagnosis.
Purpose
of the study
          A lot of
research works have been carried out on Ebola virus disease EVD within and
outside Nigeria by many people of different interest Ebola is a major
predicament confronting the lives of people within and outside African
continent.
          The disease typically occurs in
outbreaks in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa from 1976 (when it was
first identified) through 2013 the World Health Organization reported 1,716
confirmed cases. The largest outbreaks to date is the ongoing West Africa Ebola
virus outbreak which has caused a large number of deaths in Guinea, Sierra
Leone and Liberia. In March 2014, the world Health organization (WHO) reported
a major Ebola outbreak in Guinea a western African nation researchers troued
the outbreak to a one year old who died December 2013. The disease then rapidly
spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. It is the
largest Ebola out brake ever documented and the first recorded in the region.
          On 8th August, 2014 the WHO
declared the epidemic as an international public health emergency urging the
world to offer and to the affected regions. The Director General of World
Health Organization (WHO) said countries affected to date simply do not have
the capacity to manage an outbreak of this size and complexity on their own. He
urged the international community to provide this support on the most urgent
basis possible by mid-August 20114, Doctors without Borders reported the
situation in Liberia capital Monrovia as catastrophic and deteriorating daily”
They reported that fears of Ebola among staff members and patients had shut down
music of the city’s health system leaving many people without treatment for
other conditions in a 26 September.
          The Ebola epidemic savaging parts of
West Africa is the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern
times. Never before in recorded history has a biosafety level four pathogen
infected so many people so quickly over such a broad geographical area for so
long.
          Intense contact training and strict
isolation techniques largely prevented further spread of the disease in the
countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone this disease is ongoing. As of 17
June 2015 27, 388 suspected cases and 11, 193 deaths have been reported.
However the WHO has said that these numbers many be underestimated because they
work closely with the body fluids of infected patients. Health care workers
have been especially vulnerable to catching the disease. In August 2014 the WHO
reported that ten percent of the dead have been health care workers. On 28
January 2015 the WHO reported that for the first time since the week ending. 29th
June 2014 their had been fewer than 100 new confirmed cases reported in a week
in the three most affected countries.
Significance
of the study
          In recent times
a considerable number of researcher has been done on the disease called Ebola
virus, but not much has been said about the effect of guidance and counselling
is a means of eradicating or minimizing the virus.
          This research would therefore be of
great importance and significant in the sense that it will help to educate the
people in general, medical agencies, medical practitioners researchers to understand
the usefulness of guidance and counselling principles and application in
eradicating the disease.
Research
questions
          In order to elicit facts from the
respondents the following research questions were formulated to guide the
researcher.
1.     Are
people from low economic status much disposed to the contact of Ebola virus
Disease (EVD) than their counterparts from high economic status?
2.     Do
individuals in rural areas contact Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) more than their
counterparts in the urban areas?
3.     Do
illiterate people contact Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) easily than their educated
counterparts?
4.     Does
age have any effects in the contact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the life of
an individual?
5.     Do
the opinions of individual vary in the spread or contact of Ebola Virus Disease
(EVD)?
6.     Are
male more exposed to the contact of Ebola virus Disease (EVD) than their female
counterparts?
Hypotheses
          The research work will be based on
these working assumptions/hypotheses are easily testable.
1.     There
is no significant difference between the rate at which rural and urban people
can contact Ebola.
2.     There
is no significant difference between the contact rate of Ebola among literates
and illiterates
3.     There
is no significant difference between the people of low socio-economic status
and that of people of high socio-economic status in  the contact of Ebola virus Disease (EVD).
4.     There
is no significant difference between sex (Male and Female) in the contact of
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD).
5.     There
is no significant different in age with the contact of Ebola Virus Disease
(EVD) when one get in contact with infected pest.
Delimitation
of the study
          The study is
limited to Lagos State of Nigeria as a case study. This choice was made to
facilitate administration of the copies of questionnaire and to reduce cost.
          The study is also restricted to Lagos because;
the first case of Ebola was recorded in Lagos. Extracts from the literature of
some West African countries (Liberia, Serria Leone and Guinea) where Ebola
epidemic was very pronounced with also be made use of.
Definition
of terms
Ebola: Any of
several filorivirus Genus Ebola virus and especially species Zaire Ebola virus)
of Africa origin that cause an often fatal hemorrhagic fever.
Disease: A
condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that
impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs
and symptom of sickness malad.
Virus: An
extremely small living thing that causes a disease, and that spreads from one
person or animal to another.
Epidemic:
Characterized by very widespread growth or extent of relating to or
constituting an epidemic.
Counselling: A
mutual advise given especially as a result of consultation.
Guidance: Help
or advise that tells you what to do the act or process of guiding someone or
something.
Antidote: A
remedy the counteract the effect of something or something that correct of
improve the bad effect of something.
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