FOOD SANITATION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIMITING FOOD BORNE INFECTION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AREA

FOOD SANITATION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIMITING FOOD BORNE INFECTION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AREA
ABSTRACT
This research work is focused on the
potential role for limiting food borne infections in the food service area.
The samples comprised four different
canteen within the college premises which were selected from canteens in the
study area.  Answers were sought to
causes, effect, and possible suggestion to control the causes of food borne.
Based on the findings, the following
recommendation and made to prevent contamination in the canteen.
1)               
Practicing
good personal and food hygiene
2)               
Proper
handling of raw and cook food
3)               
Safe
keeping of raw food and reheating of left over food with correct temperature.
4)               
Using
clean water for preparation and cooking of foods
5)               
Improved
food processing techniques
6)               
Proper
disposal of household refuse.



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Food sanitation is one of the series
of ways which are designed to prevent the contamination of food and keeping it
safe to eat.  Numerous nations have
specific laws in place concerning food sanitation, along with lengthy lists of
recommendations, from public health agencies the practice of food sanitation is
especially important to people in the food industry, at every step of the
supply chain from workers in the fields to waiters at restaurants but home
cooks also need to observe the basics of food sanitation for safety.  From the moment that food is harvested to the
time that it is eaten, it is vulnerable to cross contamination with bacteria
and other substances which could be harmful. 
They key to food sanitation is keeping food safe and clean.  With all of the handless observing personal
hygiene to avoid introducing harmful elements to food and complying with food
sanitation.
Recommendations concerning safe
holding temperatures for food, safe cooking temperatures, sterilization of
cutting boards, and other implements and so forth, should be strictly adhere
to.  At home, common sense precautions
like keeping foods frozen or refrigerated before use, washing foods before consumption,
washing hands before handling food, cooking or reheating food thoroughly, and
using separate cutting boards for meats and vegetables are often sufficient to
keep people from getting sick.  Certain
foods may require additional precautions, people making foods with raw fishes
and meats, for example, need to select their ingredients carefully at the store
and handle them with special care because bacteria will not be eliminated
through cooking.  In the commercial food
industry which prepared packaged foods, and meals in restaurant, food
sanitation can get extremely complex.  A
single mistake along the sanitation chain could make numerous people sick.  For example, if someone failed to wash his or
her hands after using the restroom and then prepare delicious boxed salads for
customers, these customers could get sick from bacteria on the leaves of the
salad greens.  Out breaks of food borne
illness due to poor food sanitation are a recurrent problem in many regions of
the world.  Failure to process foods
properly has led to sickness from peanut, butter, spinach, hamburger-meat  and many other basic stapes.  Out breaks have also been traced to
restaurants roadside food stands, and many other locations where food is sold
or traded.  Even institution like churches
and community bake sales are not exempt at from food sanitation issues.  It is important for people to remember to use
handling precautions every time they come into contact with food.  If you prepare or handle food that will be
eaten, you must be sure you meet the highest standards of sanitation and make
sure the foods is safe to eat.  These
standards and especially important if you work in a food services
operation.  Also they are just as valid
in your home kitchen, backyard barbecue, or at an office.
(www.rawfoodsexperts.com., www.thefsc.co.uk.).
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to find
out the:
1)               
Perception
of the customers about the waiters (servers) in the canteen
2)               
Effect
of food borne micro – organisms on food
3)               
Various
ways of practicing hygiene and sanitation to limit food borne infections in the
canteen
4)               
Possible
causes of food borne diseases
5)               
Possible
suggestion on the control of food borne disease.
RESEARCH QUESTION
1)               
What
are the perception of customers about the waiters (servers) in the canteen?
2)               
What
are the effect of food borne micro – organisms on food?
3)               
What
are the various ways of practicing hygiene and sanitation to limit food borne
infections in the canteen?
4)               
What
are the possible causes of food borne diseases?
5)               
What
are the possible suggestion on the control of food borne diseases.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher is faced with a lot of
problem while conducting her research on this project work problems encountered
by the researcher we include:
Limited time available for the
research.  As a result of this she is
unable to cover the broad areas of the research topic because of other academic
assignment.  There is also a financial
constraint against the researcher, there is not enough money available for the
researcher for effective runnings during the research, there is no enough money
to travel round to the food agencies and to browse the internets as expected
while the researcher was going on hence, it has been limited to the campus
area.
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited to customers
who has patronized the available canteens in the college premises.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most food handler believe only
maintaining the cleaningness of simple food hygiene.  But in the real sense of it, personal hygiene
is even more important than the food hygiene. 
Because the problem caused by attitude of handler can be more hazardous
than it’s main object food.  Therefore there
is need to make attitude of the food handler suitable to the consumers, other
causes for instant are that most of the canteen who are illiterate contributes
to the problems.  If the environment of
where the food is prepared is not well kept while the hygienic condition of the
handler is not considered it results to food hazard and food poisoning.  Although cases of food poisoning are not
regularly reputed in restaurant, it is a fast mat food poisoning is on the
increase in the developed and developing countries, not withstanding any
attempt of improving food hygiene standard in highly demanded.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The possible benefits to be derived
from this study will be useful to the family, units, community and country as a
whole.  There is need for proper hygiene
and sanitation in the canteen so that the risk of infections disease could be
solved.  The significance of this study
is to educate the masses on the danger of improper hygiene practices in the
canteen and the need for proper sanitation in various home.  The extension workers could integrate the
findings of this study in their programme and use them to plan programmes
designed to help food seller and families in evolving and adopting effective
hygiene practices in the canteen.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
FOOD: Food is any substance that is
taken in by man or animal either solid or liquid which functions to repair worn
out cells, synthesis tissues, aid growth and protect from contacting diseases.
FOOD BORNE ILLNESS: Illness caused in
the body system as a result of taken contaminated food or food that is not well
prepared.
TOXIN: A poisonous substances they
may be found in food
VIBRIO: A bacteria some of which are
associated with diarrhea disease.  Vibrio
is found in fish and seafood.
FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS: are disease
causing micro organism found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites,
protozoa’s and viruses.
CROSS CONTAMINATION: The transfer of
harmful substances or diseases causing micro organisms of food by hands, food
contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are
not cleaned, and then touch ready to eat foods.
BACTERIA: Living single cell
organisms that are carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals and people
and survive on skin, clothes and human hair.
FOOD SAFETY: Refers to the conditions
and practices that at preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and
food borne illnesses.
INCUBATION PERIOD: This is referred
to as period between the time when a contaminated food is consumed and the
appearance of the first symptoms of illness.



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