FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE AMONG LITERATE WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN ONDO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE

FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE AMONG LITERATE WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN ONDO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents                                                                                 Pages
COVER PAGE                                                                     
TITLE PAGE                                                                        
CERTIFICATION                                                                       
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                
DEDICATION                                                                      
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                   
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                 
LIST OF FIGURES                                                                  
LIST OF TABLES                                                                      
LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                  
ABSTRACT                                                                           
CHAPTER I –
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study                                                                            
Statement of the problem                                                                 
Purpose of the study                                                                        
Significance of the study                                                                            
Scope of the study                                                                                     
Research questions                                                                                    
Research hypothesis                                                                        
CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of literature                                                                          
Conceptual framework  
                                                                   
Attitude of women towards family planning                                             
Awareness of woman towards family planning                               
Influence of educational status on family planning                                   
Challenges encountered by women towards family planning           
Theoretical framework                                                                    
Review of related empirical studies                                                  
Knowledge of family planning among women of child bearing
age
The use of modern methods of family planning among women                 
The influence of economic status on women in relation to
family    
planning    
The benefits of family planning to female youth in the
society                  
Summary of literature reviewed                                                       
CHAPTER III – METHODOLOGY
Research design           
                                                                             
Area of the study                                                                              
Population of the study                                                                             
Sample and sampling techniques                                                               
Instruments for data collection                                                         
Validation of the instrument                                                            
Reliability of the instrument                                                                      
Administration of the instrument                                                     
Data analysis techniques    
                                                             
CHAPTER IV –
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
                            OF RESULTS
Analysis of personal data                                                                
Research question 1                                                                         
Research question 2                                                                          
Research question3                                                                          
Research question 4                                                                                           
Research question 5                                                                                   
Test of research hypothesis 
1                                                                   
Test of research hypothesis 2                                                                    
Test of research hypothesis 3                                                          
Test of research hypothesis 4                                                           
Test of research hypothesis 5                                                                     
CHAPTER V – DISCUSSION
OF RESULTS, SUMMARY,
     CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of results                                                                                   
Summary of the study                                                                               
Conclusion                                                          
                                      
Implication of the findings                                                               
Recommendations                                                                            
Limitations of the study                                                                     
Suggestions for further studies                                                         
 References                                                                                       
Appendix A                                                                                     
Appendix B                                                                                      
Appendix C                                                                                     



LIST
OF FIGURES
Figures                                                                                              Pages
Fig 2.1:  Conceptual framework on infant mortality                        
Fig 2.2:  Theoretical framework                                                 



LIST OF TABLE
Table          4.1:    Health
Center used                                                               
Table 4.2:   Sex classification of respondents                                           
Table 4.3:   Age of respondents                                                                
Table 4.4    Number of Children                                                              
Table 4.5:   Educational qualification                                                    
Table 4.6:   Religion                                                                                
Table 4.7:    Descriptive
analyses showing how immunization reduce infant   
            mortality                                                                     
Table 4.8:    Descriptive
analyses showing how Counseling during antenatal        
           helps to reduce infant mortality
Table 4.9:   
Descriptive analyses showing how Health Education helps in
          reduce
infant mortality
Table 4.10  
Descriptive analyses showing how free health care reduce    
           infant mortality                                                             
Table 4.11: Descriptive
analyses showing how the use of health                  
facilities
helps reduce infant mortality
Table 4.12:  Chi-square
analyses showing the significant of immunization   
in reducing infant mortality
Table 4.13: 
Chi-square analyses showing the significant of Counselling  
  in
reducing infant mortality
Table 4.14: Chi-square
analyses showing the significant of immunization
 in
reducing infant mortality
Table 4.15: Chi-square
analyses showing the significant of  free
health      
 care
services in reducing infant mortality
Table 4.16: 
Chi-square analyses showing how health facilities help to       
 reduce
infant mortality



LIST
OF APPENDICES
Appendices
Appendix A: Questionnaire
on the Family Planning Practice among Literate  
                   Women
of Child Bearing Age in Ondo West Local Government                         
 Area
of Ondo state.
Appendix B: Reliability statistics using Pearson
product moment correlation
                   (PPMC)      
Appendix C: List of Hospital and Health Centers                                             



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ABSTRACT
The study investigated the family
planning practice among literate women of child bearing age in Ondo West Local
government Area of Ondo State. Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and
infant mortality rates in the world and this necessitated the greater attention
given to Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in the country’s. The purpose
of the study was to find out if immunization, counseling, health education, free health care services and health facilities will
serve as a Family Planning Practice among Literate Women of Child Bearing age
in Ondo West Local government area of Ondo State.
The research design for the study was
survey design of the descriptive research. The sample size of two hundred and
fifty (250) respondents was used for the study. The respondents were  pregnant women and nursing mothers  in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo
State. Purposive sample techniques was used to select three hospital for the
study. The instrument used for the study was 24-items structured questionnaire.
Split-half method was employed to ascertain the instrument using Person’s
Product Moment Correlation.  A
coefficient of 1 was obtained at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive
statistic involving frequency counts and percentages were used to answer
research questions. The generated hypotheses were tested using Chi-square (x2).
All the hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
The findings of the study revealed that
literate women in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State have positive
attitude towards family planning, also most of the literate women are aware of
family planning. The researcher concluded that most of the literate women have
positive attitude towards family planning. It was also concluded that literate
parents are aware on how they can practice family planning. Furthermore. The
study revealed that educational status of women influence their family planning
practice in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State.
The researcher recommended that every
couple should be encouraged to visit the family planning service providers for enlightenment
on various family planning choice that will meet their needs. Also family
planning drugs and accessories should be subsidies or possibly given free to
couple who have shown interest to adopt the programme.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
The importance of family planning practices among
literate women in Nigeria especially Ondo town cannot be over emphasized.
Family planning is a process of controlling the number of children among
couples. It is a lifesaver for millions of women and children in both developing
countries including Nigerian and it is one of the most cost-effective health
interventions.
The alarming rate at which the population of the world is
increasing demands adequate  and
immediate attention. This is needed to curb problem of social, ecological,
economic and general welfare problems of all individuals. As a matter of fact,
the survival of the human race is endangered if population growth is not
checked adequately. Family planning is the practice that helps individuals or
couples to attain the objectives to avoid unwanted pregnancy, to bring about
wanted birth, to regulate the interval between one pregnancy and another to
determine the number of children in the family (Olugbenga-Bello Abodurin &
Adomi, 2011).
Family
planning, according to Smith, Ashford, Gribble and Clifton (2009) increases
survival, improves the health of millions of people and helps achieve national
goals.
Family planning helps women to avoid unwanted pregnancies, illegal
abortions and child bearing that will threaten their own personal health and
that of the children. Family planning involves two concepts – contraceptive use
and family planning services which is used by couples to bring about healthy
sexual relationships among them without fears of unwanted pregnancies and
sexually transmitted infections (Osakinle, 2003). Ringheim and Gribble (2009)
and Lordson (2012) further shed light on the role of the two concepts. The
later opines that family planning can be said to be child spacing. He also
believes it is a practice whereby prescribed orthodox medicines are used to
prevent pregnancy while the previous child grows and the mother’s body
system recover sufficiently.
Ringheim
and Gribble (2009) also noted that contraception helps individual to choose
when to have children, prevents unintended pregnancies, averts maternal and
child deaths and prevents abortions. Family planning could prevent as many as
one in every three maternal deaths by allowing women to delay motherhood, space
birth, avoid unintended pregnancies and abortion and stop childbearing when
they reached their destined family size (Carb & Mary 2008). Evidence
suggests that more than half of all couples in the developing countries are
using family planning to delay, space or limit future pregnancies, yet the need
for keeps increasing as the number of women of reproductive age continues of
grow. An estimated 137million women worldwide have unmet need for Family
Planning (FP). that is, they are not using any method and report that they want
to avoid pregnancy (Rhoda, Lori, Jay & Donna 2009).
Recent researches have indicated that family planning
increases survival, improves the health of millions of people and helps achieve
national goals. In “Return of the Population Growth Factor” (2009),
it is believed that family planning can contribute to nearly all the goals
outlined in the United Nation’s Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) including
reducing poverty and hunger, pro

moting gender equity and empowering women,
reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, and
ensuring environmental sustainability. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2007)
also noted that family planning can help women wait at least two years before
trying to become pregnant again, thereby reducing newborn, infant and child deaths
significantly. In the same vein, Collumbien, Gerressu and Cleland (2004) are of
the opinion that family planning could help prevent as many as one in every
three maternal deaths by allowing women to delay motherhood, space births,
avoid unintended pregnancies and abortions and stop childbearing when they have
reached their desired family size.

Traditionally, Nigerians have recognised the
need for spacing births. For example, abstinence while breastfeeding has been
widely practiced in Nigeria in the olden days and according to Wolf &
Abubukar (2008), it is still practiced in Nigeria across the northern Nigeria
as a method of child spacing. Xnaocha (2002) observed that traditional ways
used to prevent pregnancy in the olden days include prolonged lactation,
post-natal and sexual abstinence and polygamy, that is, husband pressure for
intercourse is reduced because of too many wives. Other methods include
charms/armlets and herbs. With the increased population and diseases as stated
by Lordson (2012), the traditional ways have become obsolete and modern family
planning methods for child spacing have been adopted. With the economic state
of the Nation, couples begin to face unwanted pregnancies. Of the 210 million
pregnancies occurring each year, according to WHO (2007), nearly 80 million are
unintended. Unintended pregnancy is a primary reason for aborton. Each year,
approximately 42 million women decide they cannot continue their pregnancies
and seek abortions. An estimated 20 million of those abortions are performed
either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking the
minimal medical standards, or both – resulting in nearly 67,000 deaths
annually.
Nigeria which has population of 140 million and an annual
growth rate of 3.2% is the most population explosion with the resultant effect
that food production cannot match the growing population. In Nigeria today, the
birth rates are higher than the world average (Nwachukwu & Obasi, 2008)
contraceptive prevalence rates is still embarrassing how in Nigeria, according
to the report released by the international women’s health coalition, the CPR
among married women aged 15-49 years was 8% for modern methods and 12% for all
methods. Also other studies have reported a similarly low adoption rate of Modern
Birth Control Methods (MBCM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA.
2007).
Like many other developing nations majority of Nigeria’s
population (about 70%) live in the rural communities. These rural communities
have very high fertility rate and the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) is
also considerably lower in rural areas with contraceptive prevalence rate of 8%
as cpmpared with 18% in the urban areas in Nigeria. Many rural women are
reportedly relunctant to accept any artificial method of contraception. (Geur,
& Goel, 2008) several studies also revealed that rural women who were
unwilling to accept family planning methods were unwilling to accept family
planning methods were concerned about child survival and viewed children as a source
of support in old age.
Adopting Modern Birth Control Method (MBM) is a very
complex sociological issue in Africa, and African women draw on a complex
social repertoire in making contraceptive choices. Decision-making concerning
fertility control is, for many people, a deeply personal and sensitive issue,
often involving religious or philosophical convictions. Studies carried out in
Nigeria have shown that lack of adequate information and ignorance are key
factors militating against family planning practice in Nigeria (Moronkola,
Ojediran & Amosun, 2006) the socio-economic characteristics of women,
notably educational differences in reproductive behaviour and contraceptive
choice (Olugbenga, Abodurin & Adomi, 2011). Birth control is a priority in
Nigeria and many programmes to increase contraceptive practice have been
implemented. However, the problem of high fertility and low contraceptive
practice remain unresolved. The total fertility rate of the country for the
year 2000 was found to be 5.9 children per women and the contraceptive
prevalence was only 8%. This is too low to affect the fertility levels
significantly, and the fertility rate of the country actually increased to 6.1
children per women for the year (2003). High population growth prevents the
long-term socio-economic development needed to alleviate poverty and to meet
the immediate basic needs of the burgeoning population. Accurate and specific
data about the reason behind the low contraceptive practice in the country
should be available in order to develop an effective and relevant family
planning strategy.
Statement of the problem
Owing to uncontrollable
positive increase of joblessness or unemployment, unsatiable demand for
improved social services and educational opportunities, population explosion
becomes a serious concern, this  is more so
when the population growth rate is greater than the growth rate of economy. Nevertheless,
all hand should be on deck to examine the number of issues that influence
population explosion, specifically attention be tailoring family size that is
equated to the available resources.
One of the primary objectives of family planning among
women in Ondo West local government area of Ondo State is to enhance good
health. The researcher observed that in Ondo West Local Government Area, there
are many literate women who are involved in termination of unwanted and
unplanned pregnancies and related issues, which affect their health. The
researcher is of the opinion that these could be linked with the kind of
attitude literate women put up towards family planning practices in Ondo West
Local Government Area.
In view of these, the study intends to look into family
planning practice among literate women of childbearing age in Ondo West Local
Government Area of Ondo State.
 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate family
planning practice among literate women of childbearing age in Ondo West Local
Government Area of Ondo State. Specifically, the study intends to:
1.        
Determine the attitude of literate women of childbearing
age towards family planning in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State.
2.        
Find out the level of awareness of literate women of
childbearing age towards family planning
3.        
Determine if educational status of women of childbearing
age influence their knowledge towards family planning in Ondo West Local
Government Area
4.        
To find out the challenges encounter by literate parents
towards family planning in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo state
5.        
If economic status
have influence on the attitude of literate women of child bearing age towards
family.
Significance of the study
The findings of this study, if published in a journal and
made available to all women in Nigeria will enable them improve their
knowledge, understanding and attitude towards family planning practice which
will help to reduce the level of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, dumping of
babies here and there among the women in Ondo State.
Infact this study is imperative when one thinks of the
downwards plunge of the nation’s economy. Hardly can families meet all their
needs because of the bad state of their economy. In an attempt to salvage the
situation the limited resources of the family are spent on many children,
family planning will help to checkmate such situation.
The study results will also help policy makers and
programme planners determine what issues need to be stressed in the design of
future. Family planning awareness campaign in Nigeria and used as reference
materials by population planners for studying fertility related problems as a
reference materials for further study in family planning.
Educational programme will find such knowledge about
literate women in family planning issues very useful in their campaigns for
effective fertility regulation which before now is mainly based on women. The
study will also contribute to knowledge and form a basis through which other
studies can proceed.
 Scope of the Study
The study was
delimited to  family planning practice
among literate women of child bearing age. The study is delimited to only
literate parents in Ondo West Local Government area. The survey design of the
descriptive type of research was used for the study. The study  involve two (2) research assistants which was
trained by the researcher. The research instrument was self-structured
questionnaire. The analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics of
frequency counts and percentages to answer the research questions and
inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) was used to test the
hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
Research questions
In an attempt to carry out the study, answers will be provided to the
following questions:
1.      What
are the attitude of literate women of childbearing age towards family planning
in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State?
2.      What
are the levels of awareness among literate women of childbearing age towards
family planning practice?
3.      Does
educational status of women in Ondo West Local Government Area influence their
knowledge towards family planning practice?
4.      What
are the challenges encounters by literate women of childbearing age towards
family planning?
5.      Does economic status have influence on the attitude of
literate women of child bearing age towards family planning?
Research hypotheses
The following hypothesis were tested for the purpose of this study:
1.       
There will be no significance difference in the attitude
of literate women towards family planning.
2.       
There will be significance difference in the level of
awareness among literate women towards family planning practice.
3.       
Educational  status
of women  would not  influence 
their knowledge towards  family
planning.
4.       
There will be significance difference in the challenges
encounter by literate women of childbearing age towards, family planning.
5.       
Economic status will
not significantly have influence in the attitude of literate women towards
family planning.
 

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