FAMILY EDUCATION EXPENDITURE AS A CORRELATE OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background to the Study
          The
issue of school financing is related to the relative commitment of the various
governments in Nigeria through colonial to post independence periods. That is
various governments have come and gone with each government introducing its non
educational programme without a thorough analysis of the cost of financing
tertiary schools.
          Although,
education is the joint responsibility of individuals, local, state and federal
governments, the proportion of the contribution of each agency to education
remains largely unresolved. This appears to have put a disproportionate burden
on the private individual. (Jhigan, 1993).
          However,
tertiary school education is expending rapidly in Ekiti State like any other
developing states. The causes range from high birth rate to reduce infant
motality rate coupled with government encouragement of educating the masses. It
is the belief of development economist that for a meaningful and rapid
development to take place in a state, such a state must development to take
place in a state, such a state must develop its human resources by educating
them. Investment in human capita has over the years been recognized to be the
bedrock of increase productivity and hence enhance economic development.
Perhaps, this is why nations invest in human being so that future production
levels maybe increase and consequently accelerate the rate of economic growth
(Adujumobi, E.O. (1970).
          For
an economy to grow, it must have not only sample amounts of developed human
resources of the right shorts but also favourable institutionl, socail and
poilitical environments to the extent that education helps to furnish these
human and environmental prerequsities which it unquestinably does, it too that
it can be considered as a “good investment in economic growth” (Combs and Hallak,
1972). Education can thus be seen as the kingpin of economic development.
          The
age structure of population as reported by UNESCO (1982) shows that between
40-45% of the population are still under 18 years of age. It is these groups of
people that constitute the people that bring about an ever-increasing number of
tertiary school students as well as over post tertiary institutions. This has
equally increased the family education expenditure on tertiary education in
Ekiti State. It is this family education expenditure that is referred to as
private investment in education.
          Marshall
(1975) argued in support of the above that a man invest his fund in a business
and other investing is an children’s education were being motivated in a
similar way. This represented alternative investment active with expected
future streams of return. Expenditure on education will be looked into three
perspectives.
a.    
The
social expenditure incurred by the government
b.    
The
family expenditure incurred by the students and their parents and
c.    
The
institutional expenditures incurred by the schools.
This study will however limit itself to
the family expenditure: the cost of education refers to those expenses which
can directly and conveniently identify either units of a finished product. The
include all the obvious financial outlays of the students such as, school fees,
books, transportation costs, pen and special uniform and other items not
specified. The indirect cost on education by native are not subject to any
direct money measurement e.g. the value of workers income or leisure forgone by
an individual in an indirect cost of capital which should have been earned by
the  students, if he was undergoing the
course of study.
          The
expenditure on education these days constitute a burden on must parent, because
of the exorbitant amount of money usually paid by them on their children’s
education and on tertiary school particular, some parents have more than enough
children, whose sponsorship cannot be met at 
the same time in various tertiary schools. This of cause as been the
carry over effect of previous free education at all levels implemented by the
Unity Party of Nigeria (NPN) state beginning from 1979. Although the plan was
1983, the cost of education since then has led to massive voluntary schools.
          Most
parents will prefer that their children learn one kind of vocation or the
other. They no longer see anything profitable in sending their children to
tertiary schools especially as they mercly graduated without the slightest hope
of security.
          Most
parent will rather spend their money in food and drinks which they see as
another alternative of sending their children to tertiary school. However, no
matter the situation, most educated parents and some  illiterate parents reality believed that
education can not be valueless. Believing the transition of time, one would in
fact reason along with them because from observation the world itself is not
static but moving or changing almost every time. Any condition that could cause
the drifting of the economy away from the equilibrium position could be  restoring back to the original point, thereby
improving the welfare of the people.
1.2     Statement of the Research Problem
          Given
this background, it appear that a substantial part of the burden of tertiary
education is born by the parent via there children. Between 1979 and 1983, for
example education in Ekiti State was free which Ekiti State and Ondo State were
together.
          This
of course raised enrolment in schools. The outcome of their act shows the
government recurrent expenditure particularly on education rising beyond a
considerable level thereby depriving the government for further development in
other section such as agriculture and industry. The civilian government however
gave way for the military government that eventually dropped the free education
programe.
1.3     Objective of the Study
          In
specific term, the objective of this study is to find out the cost and benefits
of family education expenditure as a correlate of academic achievement of economics
students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. The study intends  to find out the family education expenditure
on tertiary education to student and examine the difference in expenditure on
education in the local government.
1.4     Research Questions
Based on the
above background to the study and the concern for the ever increasing family
education expenditure in tertiary students, the question to which attention is
directed in this study is to find the 
magnitude on education.
Attention will
be directed to the following questions.
1.    
Does
the family education expenditure have impact on students academic performance
in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
2.    
Is
there any significant difference  between
the course of study of students and their family education expenditure in
College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
3.    
Does
family size cause variation in family education expenditure of students in
College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
4.    
Does
income of parents determine the variation in family education expenditure of
students in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
5.    
Does
parental occupation determine the variation in family education expenditure of
students in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
6.    
Is
students family background responsible for variation in family education expenditure
of students in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti?
1.5     Significance of the Study
          The
problems facing students in tertiary school in terms of high family expenditure
in education, necessary calls for a study of this nature.
          The
study is very important: it will provide information for parents to plan for
their children’s education. This can be achieved through the concentration of
mind towards those children that has the ability to progress in their
education.
1.6     Scope of the Study
          This
study is limited to College of Education, Ikere Ekiti. The study covers ten
department  in the school for
convenience, only one of the departments were randomly selected for the study
which is department of economics. The questionnaire will be administered from one
student to the other in the department to ascertain family education
expenditure on tertiary schools.
1.7     Definition of Terms
Analysis:    is the detailed study or examination of
something in order to understand more about it e.g. the  result of the study
Family:      a group of people that are related by
blood or ties of marriage.

Expenditure: is the act of spending or using money e.g. an
amount of spent

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