FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MASS FAILURE IN PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MASS FAILURE IN PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE 
TABLE OF
CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                i
Certification                                                                                      ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgements                                                                 iv
Abstract                                                                                  vi
Table of contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER
ONE
: INTRODUCTION                                             
Background
to the Study                                                                 
Statement
of the Problem                                                                 
Purpose
of the Study                                                              
Significance
of the Study                                                                 
Scope of
the study                                              
Research
Questions                                   
CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW       
Introduction
Historical
background of accounting
Concepts
of principle of Accounting 
Objectives
of principle of Accounting 
Methods
of teaching principle of Accounting 
The
roles of instructional materials in teaching principle of Accounting
Teacher’s
attitude as its effects on student’s performance, students learning attitude
and its effect on their performances
Factors responsible for mass failure in accounting
Empirical
studies
Theoretical
framework
Summary
of literature review
CHAPTER THREE              
Research design
Population of the study
Samples and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
CHAPTER FOUR
Descriptive
analyses
Discussion
of Findings                                                           
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
Summary
of the study                                                            
Conclusion
         
Suggestion
for further studies
Limitation
of the study                                                           
Recommendation
                                                                   
References
                                                                             
Appendix
A: Questionnaire                                                    
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
It
is  true 
that  many  students in Accounting Education today
do  not 
have  secondary  school 
background  in Accounting unlike
Mathematics, Economics, “English, Government and so on therefore, they tend to
have a negative attitude at the very beginning of the course at the  university and assume  that 
accounting  is  a 
very  difficult  course.
Students   negative attitude toward accounting,
considering it a difficult subject. 
This  is usually  manifested 
by  their  poor 
performance  and  high 
rate  of  failure 
in  Principles  of accounting. 
          Since principle of Accounting has come
to stay in Nigeria secondary school the factors that affect students’
performance in the subject becomes a necessity.
Factor that enhances academic
performance among learners according to some findings is gender. That is to say
that there are indications of gender bias in examination performance i.e. male
tend to perform higher than females in examination due to certain extraneous
factors ( Kabir 2009), In the same way to maintain the view that past
performance was found to be related to future performance. This is also by
Kalil (2008) where he maintained that students past performance in ‘0’ level
examination was found to be related to their future performance The concept of
learning environment is very broad and its effect on learning cannot be
over-emphasized. Akinboye et al (1981) maintained that the physical environment
is complex; its effects on learning are also complex. In the physical
environment there are forces such as temperature, pressure, and humidity which
affect individual and consequently his learning. He further stressed that
learning is a product of an individual’s interaction, with his environment. This
position maintained that, a conducive environment is necessary for effective
learning.
          As
for education in school to be effective the environment needs to be conducive
to learning, allowing the pupils’ space and time to interact within the
learning and teaching process. Creating and maintaining stimulating learning
environment can be achieved through effective and classroom organization,
interactive and whole school displays and a climate if innovation. It is
important to note that good learning and teaching displays in classrooms and
corridor reflecting a broad and balanced curriculum which is well matched to
the needs of the pupils.
Therefore, if a good a well maintained
learning environment is ensured, the students will appear to perform better and
produce good result. But most of the schools in Ekiti State do not meet the
entire requirement for effective learning environment particularly in rural
areas. Thus, greater parts of many primary schools have their roofs blown-off
by wind. Therefore, children under this condition are forced to study without
being free from the effect of weather, rain, sun, and wind. In a situation
where the physical comfort of the children is not guaranteed it is then not
ideal for learning. NT.I (2000) puts it together that conducive
teaching-learning environment is a pre-requisite for effective learning in most
secondary schools in Ekiti State.
Previous  research 
work  on  students’ 
success  factors  in 
accounting,  such  as 
Tailab  (2013), Uyor and Gungornus
(2011) and Adeleke, Binyuomote and Adoyinka (2013), examined the two
extreme  factors  (students-related  and  teachers-related)
with  little  or  no
consideration  given  to the factor that brings the symbolism
between teachers and students (institutional factors). More so, although the
high rate of students’ failure in 
principle of in Nigerian secondary schools is clearly observable, to the
best of our knowledge, there are scanty empirical studies in Nigerian that  have 
examined  factors  responsible 
for  this  poor 
students’  achievement.  In order to close these existing gaps, this
study is therefore aimed at investigating the factors and the effect of mass
failure in principle of Accounting in Nigeria secondary school
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Statement
of the Problem
Observations
and reports from examining bodies like WAEC, NECO and JAMB revealed that a high
percentage of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in principle
of accounting. Despite the laudable efforts at developing an acceptable general
accounting curriculum students’ performance in the subject appears to be
declining over the years.  Yet in the
face of all these efforts put in place by various stake holder and curriculum
planner the rate and degree of students’ poor performance in senior secondary
school examination in principle of accounting must now be a problem of national
concern. The question that readily comes to mind is; what
are the factors responsible for mass failure in principle of accounting in
secondary school examination? Are the teachers of principle of accounting
adequately qualified and properly trained in the subject? Is
the excessive workload and lack of teacher training facilities at the root of
poor performances of student?
Purpose
of the study 
This
study examines the factors responsible for mass failure in principle of
accounting in three selected secondary schools in Oye Local Government Area of
Ekiti State
Specifically,
the study will;
1.     Determine if teachers’ and students’ attitude to
teaching and learning of principle of accounting is one the major factors
responsible for mass failure
2.     Determine if 
school environment contribute to mass failure in accounting
3.     Find out if Teachers’ teaching methods contribute
to mass failure in principle of accounting
4.     Find out 
if  teachers’ use of instructional
materials contribute to mass failure in accounting 
 Research Questions
To achieve the objective of the study, five
research questions were raised.
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Significance
of Study
It
is the sincere hope of the researcher that by carrying out this study of the
factors responsible for mass failure in Accounting and proffering solutions,
the findings and recommendations would be of a great help to all stakeholders
who have anything to do with the success or failure of the child in school;
school administrators, classroom teachers, psychologists, teacher trainers,
theorists, examination bodies, curriculum designers and professional
associations.
It
will equally guide and guard government at all levels and ministries of
education, school guidance counselors and parents. It is hoped that this study
will help in improving the whole system in such a way as to induce better
performance in accounting examination at the secondary school level.
 Scope
of study
The
present study used three secondary schools in Oye  Local Government Area Of Ekiti State. These
schools present students for the senior secondary school certificate
examinations conducted by both NECO and WAEC.The research work covered only
three sampled selected schools in only one local government area. It also
covered only public senior secondary schools.



CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE
Introduction
A lot have been written on student’s performance
in the senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE). The reason for this
chapter is to view related literature on the factors responsible for mass
failure in principle of accounting at SSCE level. The review is organized into
the following sub-headings:
·       
Historical background of accounting
·       
Concepts of principle of Accounting 
·       
Objectives of principle of Accounting 
·       
methods of teaching principle of Accounting 
·       
the roles of instructional materials in teaching principle of
Accounting
·       
teachers attitude as its effects on students performance, students
learning attitude and its effect on their performances
·       
Factors responsible
for  mass failure in accounting
·       
empirical studies
·       
theoretical framework
·       
Summary of literature review
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