FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE OF DRUG ABUSE AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE OF DRUG ABUSE AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 
TABLE
OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                      
Certification                                                                                               
Dedication                                                                                        
Acknowledgement                                                                                     
Abstract                                                                                           
Table
of Contents                                                                            
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                    
1.1 Background to the study                                                            
1.2 Statement of the problem                                                          
1.3 Objective of the study                                                                
1.4 Research questions                                                                      
1.5 Significance of the study                                                            
1.6 Scope of the study                                                                     
1.7 Limitation
of the Study                                                              
1.8 Assumption/Hypothesis of the Study                                       
1.9 Operational definition of terms                                                  
1.10 Organisation of Chapters                                                                  
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Review of Related Literature                                                   
2.1 General causes of drug addiction.                                                        
2.2 Peer pressure influence                                                              
2.3 Factors contributing to this effect include:                                 
2.4 Parental or family influence                                                                 
2.5 Effect of the media                                                                     
2.6 Common drugs of abuse                                                            
2.7 Traditional alcoholic beverages and drugs                                 
2.8 Modern drugs of abuse                                                              
2.9 Effects of drug abuse                                                                         
2. 10 Measures of preventing drug abuse.                                       
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology                                                                             
3.1 Research design                                                                           
3.2 Population, sampling procedure and sample                               
3.3 Research instrument                                                                            
3.4 Validity of research instrument                                                  
3.5 Data collection                                                                                       
3.6 Data analysis                                                                               
CHAPTER FOUR                                                                           
4. 0 Results and Discussion                                                             
CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                     
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                       
5.1 Summary                                                                                   
5.2 Conclusion                                                                                 
5.3 Recommendations                                                                      
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies                                                 
REFERENCES                                                                            
APPENDIX                                                                                   

ABSTRACT

          This
research work is geared to identify the factors influencing the rate of drug
abuse and its effect on academic performance

of secondary school student, Ikere
was used as a case study, in the process questionnaire were administered to
guide the data through interview method to case modern case and trend of drug
abuse, the findings rate of the study revealed that the high rate of drug abuse
is as a result of low standard of living and Nigeria economic crunch and high
rate of separation in marriage, child abuse and neglect. Recommendations were
given, which is employed will help in a big way towards the reduction of
deviances behavior amongst youth.

   
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
          Drug, a substance
that affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure,
prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of
patients with incurable conditions. Moronkola (1993) believed that use, misuse
and abuse of drugs are three concepts in drug issues that need proper
classification. Use is a term reserved for any purpose to which drug is taken
to the body by man.
          Drugs are
chemicals. They work in the brain by tapping into the brain’s communication
system and interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and
process information. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate
neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural
neurotransmitter. This similarity in structure “fools” receptors and allows the
drugs to lock onto and activate the nerve cells.
          Although these
drugs mimic brain chemicals, they don’t activate nerve cells in the same way as
a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being transmitted
through the network. Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the
nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or
prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals. This disruption produces
a greatly amplified message, ultimately disrupting communication channels. The
difference in effect can be described as the difference between someone
whispering into your ear and someone shouting into a microphone.
          Drug
is supposed to be dispersed by pharmacists with a doctor’s prescription and
usage of drug can be through any of the following; injection, insertion,
inhalation, massaging or application on open wounds and cuts. The main purpose
of drugs should in reality be directed to its medical functions and it should
be used strictly according to the prescription of medical doctors, but in most
cases people use drug without the prescription of medical practicioner. This is
referred to as drug abuse. In some cases, these drugs are used wrongly or
misused. That is using, drug meant for certain purposes for other purposes
rather than what it is meant for. There are other cases where some people get
themselves involved in the use of a particular drug so much that they cannot do
without such drug. In this case such a person is said to be addicted to that
drug.
PEOPLE ABUSE DRUG FOR
DIFFERENT REASONS
i.                            
For modification of tension and anxiety
          For example sedatives; are use to induce sleep and relax
tension. They are used for people with high blood pressure, insomnia patient (
that is inability to sleep) usually abuse sedatives. Now teenage girls and
women are consuming sedative more and more frequently.
ii.                       
To increase activities and alertness:
           For example stimulant
like cocaine, caferreine and amplietamines are mostly widely abused stimulant
among youths. Usually stimulants are taken through by mouth in form of capsules
or tablets but the occasional user of capsules or tablets can push them beyond
the normal physiological limits, for instance, wanting to stay awaken to drive,
to excel in an athletic context or to cram for examination.
  iii.           
Curiosity:
          Students find themselves in the use of drugs out of
curiosity. They want to know how it looks like in being on a certain drugs.
Drugs that are commonly used out of curiosity are cigarettes, marijuana and
alcohol.
  iv.           
Imitation: 
          Students takes drugs as a result of imitation of either
from their parents, other adult or their friends and peers.
     v.           
 For boldness:
           Students take
certain drug because they feel it will remove inhibition from them and make
them bold for example,  shy young boys
under the influence of drugs can speak to a girl their could not have made
advance towards.
  vi.                
 For fun:
          Others go into drugs for the fun of it. They also feel that
drug can enable the have a lot of fun.
FOUR GROUPS OF DRUG USERS
GENERALLY IDENTIFIED
i.       Emotionally well- adjusted
individuals who take addicting drugs on medical advice for treatment of pain,
sleeplessness and the like after protected use they find that they cannot get
along without them.
ii.     The neurotics who turn to
drug because drugs makes them forget their feelings of inadequacy and fear
making them feel better and more normal either physically, mentally or both.
These contribute to longest group of drug abusers.
The psychopaths who take drugs in a
deliberate
iii.             
Search for thrills, highs, and kicks..
iv.             
Individual usually adolescent who try drugs in order to be
accepted by their peer group.
          Most
of these young ones usually start from this group and if the habit continues
grave consequences may follow. Trying a relatively less detrimental drug such
as cannabis may expose the young one to other drugs like heroine, cocaine and
morphine.
          Man has used drug and substances for centuries. There is
evidence that man has used drug practically since his emergence. Historical
records show that man used drug to cast out demons which were thought to be
causing pain in his body.  The use of psychoactive drugs may be seen to be
a universal phenomenon existing in one form or the other. Alcohol and kolanuts
are used during worship of ancestral gods, marriages and funeral ceremonies.
          According to Emaifo {2008} drug addiction was unknown in
Nigeria until the arrival of the American Peace Corps. This statement cannot be
entirely true because Nigerians were already abusing and getting themselves
addicted to kolanuts and alcohol before the arrival of the Peace Corps. The
statement can only be true of foreign drugs which were introduced this time.
          Scientist and historians traced the origin of tobacco to
North America where it was first cultivated by American Indians before the
Europeans went to the new world in 1492.
          It should be noted that when drugs are mentioned, the
emphasis is always on orthodox medicine and not traditional medicine.
The History of Drug Use and Abuse
          Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because
of lack of dosage to determine the required quantity by the user. The
expiration period of such drugs are never stated.
          Although the use of traditional drugs as well as alcohol
and kola nut has been abuse before the arrival of Peace Corps. In recent years
where there is the usage of both traditional and foreign drugs people now being
used. Some of these drugs are socially accepted and members of the public
ignorantly use them without really knowing the great effect of such drugs. E.g.
alcohol has always been part of the heritage either as part of rituals or other
ceremonies. The use of alcohol to relax and promote social conversation is
greatly use of alcohol and its social acceptability, alcohol is capable of
producing severe dependence and damage to physical health and mental health
including social and economic damage on self, family and society.
          Cecilia (2010)
opined that medically, drug abuse is the use of drug to an extent that it
produces definite impairment on social, psychological or physiological
functioning of the user. Drug abuse is also the use of illegal drugs, or the
misuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs. It refers to the use of a
drug for purposes for which it is not intended or using a drug in excessive
quantities. Such drugs of abuse include tobacco, barbiturates,
amphetamines and narcotics. Drug abuse entails a strong cultural and subjective
bias, depending on whether a society at a particular point in time views the
use of a particular drug as acceptable or not. Therefore, what is regarded as
normal use as against pathological abuse varies greatly from drug, quantity,
situation to situation, culture to culture or even among subcultures of the
same society.
          It has been
observed that much of substance use among youths take place in schools. The
incidence of substance use among students is high (Eneh & Stanley, 2004).
Drug and alcohol use during adolescence is almost always a social experience
and a learned behaviour (Swaid 1988). One of the important psychological
phenomena observed during this period of adolescence is experimentation (Graham,
Turk & Verhulst 1999). This behaviour has been found to lead to the trying
out of new experiences such as drug and sex, sometimes with dire consequence
for the adolescents.
          The growing trend
in abuse and production of psychotropic substances must be reversed. We must
never give in to the human toll illegal drugs are taking on our societies.
There are 21 million victims around the world who abuse cocaine and heroin, and
30 million who abuse amphetamine – type stimulants. “We cannot ease their
suffering, or that of their loved ones, unless we fight this.”( Former UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan, at the opening of the General Assembly’s 1998
Special Session on World’s Drug Problem.) We all face challenges that provide many opportunities
for growth and change. Among these are decisions regarding the role that
alcohol and other drugs will have in our life.
          Television and
movies have the greatest influence on junior students in making drugs and
alcohol seem attractive. The second greatest influence is other children.
Children in grades four through six think that the most important reason for
using alcohol and marijuana is to “fit in with others,” followed
closely by a desire “to feel older.”
          Students also have
incomplete or inaccurate information. For example, only 44 per cent of sixth
graders polled in a national survey think alcohol should be called a drug?.
This finding reinforces the need for prevention programs beginning in the early
grades, programs that focus on teaching children the facts about drugs and
alcohol and the skills to resist peer pressure to use them.
          Students who turn
to more potent drugs usually do so after first using cigarettes and alcohol
(gateway drugs), and then marijuana. Initial attempts may not produce a
“high”; however, students who continue to use drugs learn that drugs
can change their thoughts and feelings. The greater a student’s involvement
with marijuana, the more likely it is the student will begin to use other drugs
alongside marijuana.
          These problems and
incidences of drug abuse among secondary school students necessitated the need
for this study in this area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
          Drug abuse is a
general problem in Nigeria today especially in areas where there is no adequate
supervision i.e. monitoring of students and effective usage of punishment for
deviant behaviours. Recently NDLEA officials reported cases of junior secondary
school students in possession of Indian Hemp.
          Academic
achievement is measured in a variety of ways. The most commonly cited indicator
is the rate of high school completion. Statistics also are available on grades,
standardized test scores, absenteeism, suspensions and expulsions, and the
percentage of students who have been held back. The following are often cited
indicators of low achievement which could be as a result of drug abuse.
          Also, cases such as
riots during inter-house sports, secondary school student wielding dangerous
weapons such as cutlasses, broken bottles, etc. can also be linked to the
effect of this dangerous act called drug abuse. The entire indices of problem
highlighted above have led to low academic performance of students, hence the need
for this study.
1.     3 Objective of the Study
          The general
objective of this study is to investigate into cases of drug abuse and to what
extent the abuse of drugs has affected the performance of students in school
work. The specific objectives are to:
i.                  
Find out if
parents, peers take any form of drug and what kind of drug(s) they abuse.
ii.                
examine how
parent got involved in drug abuse and how students get the drugs they abuse
iii.             
investigate
students attitude towards school work and if they have been counselled about
drugs;
1.4 Research Questions
i.                  
Do the
students‟ parents, peers take drugs?
ii.               
What type
of drugs is taken by parents and peers?
iii.             
How do the
students get involved in drug abuse?
iv.             
Does drug
abuse have any effect on academic performance of students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
          It is of course no
more a news that there is a rise in drug addiction among young ones at tender
ages which is becoming a problem to the society. The Carnegie Council on
Adolescent Development estimated that about one quarter of the adolescent
population is at risk of academic failure and other problem behaviours. Another
quarter is considered “moderately” at risk (Carnegie Council on Adolescent
Development, 1989, p. 8).
          This research would
help to find the causes behind this addiction, its impact on academic
achievement, and of course provide information on the effects of this act and
in lieu of this suggest, possible solutions to the problem.
1.6 Scope of the Study
          The scope of this
study would be to investigate the cases of increasing drug abuse among
secondary school students, the kind of drugs they abuse and also spread its
coverage to the possible ways of being addicted and of course the correlation
between children’s performance in school and drugs and also to answer the
question, how and to what extent can news media messages on illicit drugs
influence youth attitudes towards (or demand for) illicit drug use?.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
i.             Drugs: Drug
is any chemical substance that is derived from plants and animals or mineral
resources be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal or external
application to the human body in the treatment of diseases or to induce clam,
reduce pains or modify the functions of the various system of the body.
ii.            Substance: Substance
are chemical combination of drugs in order words drug made up of combination of
chemical substance and substance can as well be refer to as those build up
charge like alcohol, tobacco, cigarette and kolanuts.
iii.           Drug
use:
 Drug use is the ingestion, injection or the application of
any substances which when taken in into the body of living organism may modify
one or more of its function, this includes not only medical also intended
primarily active substance.
iv.          Drug
misuse:
 Is the over -zealous or indiscrete administration of
drugs by using drug meant for certain purposes for another purpose rather than
what it is meant for.
v.            Drug
addiction: 
Drug addiction is the dependence on a substance with
the presence of physical withdrawal symptoms.
vi.          Psychoactive
drugs:
 This is defined as in alternating drugs.
vii.         Habitualism: This
is the dependence on a substance without the presence of physical; withdrawal
phenomena. Thus it is the psychological desire to repeat the use of these
drugs, continuously for emotional reasons.
vii.           
Dependence: It is a state of psychological or physical need
to both resulting from the interaction between an organism and a substance
resulting from continuously or periodic use which is characterized by
behavioural deviation.
viii.           
Tolerance: Is defined as the situate ion when the same
amount of substance can no longer produce the effects on an the individual and
then  needs higher amount to produce the
same effects.
x.        Withdrawal: Is
the situation when unpleasant sensation such as shaking, seating tremors,
frightening feelings and some times hallucination and delusions occurs when the
drug is stopped.
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