FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED
SCIENCE

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
          The term science has to do with
nature; it is derived from the latin word scientia which means knowledge. It is
a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of
testable explanation and predictions about the universe. It can equally be
defined as the field of study which tries to describe and understand the nature
of the universe in whole or part. According to Hyacinth (2004) science in its
broadest scene refers to all human activities involving organized knowledge of
natural phenomena. It also refers to a system of acquiring knowledge here
system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural
phenomena.
Available literatures have shown that performance of
students in integrated science as a subject is low (Adetayo, 2008). Also, the
Delta State Ministry of Education Chief Examiners Report (2008) revealed students
abysmal performance in Integrated Science at the Junior Secondary Certificate
Examination. Problems such as poor school infrastructure, lack of qualified
Integrated Science teachers, poorly equipped science workshops and laboratories
just to mention a few affects the teaching of Integrated Science. Despite these
problems, the subject is still being taught in schools. Over the years,
Educational researchers have investigated factors affecting students learning
of Integrated Science in schools. At the heart of the inquiry, is the teacher’s
factor. Studies have established relationship between teachers’ factors and
students’ achievement in school (Olatoye, 2006 and Adekola, 2006).
Effective teaching of Integrated Science is an
activity which will bring about the most productive and beneficial learning
experience for students and promote their development as learners. Effective
teaching of Integrated Science goes beyond just imparting knowledge but it is a
purposeful activity carried out by somebody with a specialized knowledge in
Integrated Science in a skillful way to enhance cognitive, affective and
psychomotor development of a person or group of persons.
For the teaching of Integrated Science to be
effective, the Integrated Science teacher must have an extensive knowledge of
the subject, knowledge of the curriculum, knowledge and understanding of how
children develop and how they learn. This includes knowledge of the context in
which learning occurs (home, community, school factor) and knowledge of assessment
techniques. An Integrated Science teacher should possess some teaching skills
and be able to plan lessons, manage a classroom, engage students in active
learning, present challenging situations to encourage problem solving, collect
and monitor information on achievement, maintain good students record, provide
motivation for students and support cooperative group work.
The teaching of Integrated Science requires various
teaching approaches and meaningful learning (Ayodele and Adegbite, 2003). The
use of inappropriate methods could make students dread science education in
later life.
In another development, Ololube, Egbezor and
Kpolovie (2008) argued that the falling educational standards can be attributed
to the use of teachers who are unqualified for instructional purposes,
including those with general education (academic) qualifications such as
Bachelors of Science (B.Sc.), Bachelors of Arts (B.A), Master of Science
(M.Sc.) and Masters of Arts (M.A) degrees without teaching qualifications. It
must be noted that without a professional teaching qualification, no meaningful
progress can be achieved in the teaching profession. Lawal (2003) indicated
that skilled and effective teaching and learning are expected from
professionally trained teachers.
Integrated Science teachers are expected to employ
the use of teaching aids to supplement other methods and manage and control
their classes for effective learning of Integrated Science. The use of
inappropriate methods could affect students’ performance in Integrated Science.
Many of the Integrated Science teachers do not have a clear insight about the
appropriate pedagogies to enhance Integrated Science teaching and learning.
Most of the teachers resort to teaching with only one major teaching method
which is the lecture or “chalk and talk” method in our Integrated Science
classroom. Sometimes, classes are too large for teachers to manage for
effective teaching and learning. This has greatly affected Integrated Science
teaching ranging from methodology and techniques of teaching (Okoye, 2004).
1.2
Statement Of The Problem
            Integrated science  is one of the core science subjects, which is
supposed to be the most interesting subject to students in junior secondary
schools. It has been discovered that the effective teaching of integrated
science  has been very important. But the
rate at which students fails Integrated science in recent time’s shows that
effective learning has not been attained by these students.  It could be reveled that many secondary
schools, especially the public schools have insufficient competent teachers as
well as science equipment in their different schools.  
In view of all the
problems mentioned already, this study is being undertaken with a view of
finding out the extent to which teachers qualification, years of teaching
experience and the availability of instructional materials in Integrated
Science classrooms affecting their teaching.
The
problem this study sought to find is the extent to which some of the known
characteristics of teaching effectiveness are employed in Integrated Science
classroom to promote learning. It 
is  upon  this 
background  that  this 
study was aimed  at  finding 
out  the factors   affecting teaching  and 
learning  of  integrated science  in 
secondary  schools, Ikere local Government Area of  Ekiti State.
Purpose
of the Study
The
purpose of the study was to find out the 
factors affecting teaching and learning of  integrated science  in secondary schools in ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
The
specific objective are;
1.     To find out the  factors militating against effecting  teaching of  Integrated science in Secondary Schools
2.    
 To investigate the extent to which teachers
attitude affect the teaching of Integrated Science in
Ikere local Government Area of  Ekiti State.
3.    
To determine if teachers qualification
affect the teaching and learning of integrated science
4.     To
find out if the use of instructional material affect effective teaching of  integrated science
 Research
Questions
             In the course of this work, specific research
questions to be answered are:
1.     What are the factors militating against
teaching and learning of Integrated Science?
2.    
To
what extent do the attitude of teachers affect the teaching of Integrated
Science in
Ikere
local Government Area of  Ekiti State
.?
3.     To
what extent does teacher qualification affect 
the teaching and learning of Integrated Science?
4.    
Does
the use of instructional materials affect the teaching and learning of
integrated science
Research Hypothesis
The following null hypothesis would
be tested at 0.05 level of significance
1.     Challenges encounter in teaching Integrated Science does have significant different in
teaching
Integrated Science
2.     Teachers attitude does not have
significant  different in teaching and
learning
Integrated Science
3.     Teachers qualification does not have
significant effect on the teaching and learning of 
Integrated Science
1.5
Significant Of The Study
This research will be beneficial to:
1. Teachers: The result of this research will
enable teachers to use different teaching methods in teaching integrated
Science
2. The result of this study will enable
educational supervisors (government officials) 
to check the activities of schools and show that qualified teachers are
used.
3. To provide adequate information in the availability
of the scientific specific integrated Science 
equipment in senior secondary schools in
Ikere
local Government Area of  Ekiti State
.
Scope
Of Study    
The study is aimed at  evaluating the factors  affecting  teaching and learning  of integrated Science in selected secondary
schools in
Ikere
local Government Area of  Ekiti State
.. Five selected secondary schools were randomly
selected in the study area 
Definition
Of The Basic Concepts
Factors: Are one of the element contributing to a
particular result or situation.
Militate
against
: This is a process
of making something less likely to happen or succeed. According to Oxford
Advanced Learner’s dictionary militate against is to prevent something or to
make it difficult for something to happen or exist.
 Teaching: this means to impart
knowledge to or to instruct someone as to do something. Okonkwo (2005) in
Oforkansi (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or
experienced person to impart information, knowledge, values skills, norms
(standard behavior) more (moral values) attitude language and so on to an
immature or less experienced person through the process that is morally and
pedagogically acceptable.
Effective
teaching:
is a process by
which a teacher adopt all the possible skills or method used in teaching in the
classroom to make sure that students understand the lesson and be able to
respond positively during evaluation and produce a good result.
 Integrated science:.
Integrated Science brings
together many inclusive aspects of science
that students will encounter in the high
school science
core curriculum. Students need an edge to facilitate
achievement when facing subjects of this magnitude.
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