FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEACHING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study investigated the factors affecting teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A total of 35 Agricultural Science teachers were randomly selected from 11 Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area. Information was collated from Agricultural Science teachers through structured questionnaire administered by them. The data were analyzed using tables of frequency and percentage as well as ANOVA to test for significant difference among the factors affecting teaching of Agricultural Science in the Secondary Schools. Follow-up analysis was also carried out using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to determine the factor(s) affecting teaching of Agricultural Science most in the selected Secondary Schools.
It was discovered that most of the teachers did not adopt good techniques in teaching Agricultural students. Also, teachers in the areas of the study did not make effective use of the teaching aids such as recorded taps and charts. Among the four identified factors affecting the teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools, the prominent factors are improved teaching conditions, good teaching techniques and good teaching facilities while skills and qualification ranked lowest since it the prerequisite for employment of all teachers in the Secondary Schools. Therefore, adequate provision of these prominent factors is highly recommended and should not be compromised.
Agriculture is an important sector of Nigeria economy for its production of food, shelter, clothing, riverine, raw materials and employment. The human race needs food for survival and these needs can only be met by productive agriculture. The term agriculture is derived from the Latin words “Ager” meaning field and “culture” which means cultivation (ref).
It is well known that Agriculture cannot be neglected throughout the world due to its essential roles of reversing the falling social and economic status of the whole world generally. The term agriculture refers to the art and science of cultivating land, rearing of animals and maintenance of forest resources for human use.
Agricultural science is important to the nation because it had added to Nigeria economy before the discovery and exploitation of crude oil. It provides essential commodities like fibber and shelter which are essential for comfortable living.
Agro-based industries depend largely on agricultural products for raw materials. Agriculture creates employment opportunities for Nigerians. To this effect, the government of Nigeria attaches so much importance to agriculture and it is encouraged in all secondary schools to improve the teaching of agricultural science. The aims of teaching agricultural science in secondary schools is to arouse the interest of students, creates awareness on agriculture and so trains the young people in the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical in order to equip the individual to live and contribute meaningful to the development of our society (ref).
Moreover, agricultural science is one of the core subjects to be taught in secondary schools and this is reflected in the new National Policy of Education (2004) (ref) which prescribed the teaching of agriculture science in both Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in order to choose their life career in agriculture.
According to the new National Policy of Education, the preparatory aspect of pre-vocational training offered to students at the Junior and Senior Secondary levels is for the purpose of:
- Introduction into the world of technology and appreciation of technology towards interest arousal and choice of professionalism later in life.
- Acquiring technical skills.
- Exposing students to career awareness by exploring usable options in the world of work; and
- Enabling youths to have an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology.
By looking at the factors affecting the development of agriculture in Nigeria, one could see that the most important problem facing Nigeria is the level of awareness and usefulness given to agricultural development.
Agricultural Science as a vocational subject is made compulsory in Secondary Schools. Teachers are being trained by the government to teach this subject at all levels of secondary education syllabus. But some schools in Nigeria especially in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Today, they only concentrate their teaching efforts on other subjects against the teaching of agricultural science subject in schools, which has been responsible for the poor performance of the students in agricultural science subjects in West African School Certificate Examination (ref).
The general objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting the teaching of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
The specific objectives of this study are to;
- find out various factors affecting the teaching of agricultural science in Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
- to determine if there are significant difference among the
This study is important in many ways. Firstly, it helps the government, schools and teachers to know the various factors that affect the teaching of agricultural science in secondary schools of Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State and to identify the ways of solving the problems.
Secondly, Agricultural science as a vocational subject, therefore, finding in this study gives a sort of new orientation to improve their production.
It will also result in intimating the government, teachers, and parents of the various schools of the need to support the school in providing facilities for teaching agricultural science in school of their Local Government Area especially in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Finally, this study will justifies the induction of agricultural science as an area of study in Nigeria secondary schools education curriculum with particular reference to secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. And that teacher will benefit from this study if the government can equip the schools with basic facilities and give agriculture some degree of priority in the schools.The facilities include: Laboratories, Libraries, conducive learning environment to make learning of agricultural science easier and to encourage the students to pay more attention to this subject.
This study covered secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A total of eleven (11) secondary schools were randomly selected. Factors affecting teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary schools were highlighted using questionnaire. A total of 35 questionnaire were administered by the Teachers that were randomly selected from selected schools
In conducting this research, the following questions were raised.
- Do the agricultural science teachers in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State possess the required skills and qualifications to teach agricultural science?
- Are there any facilities for teaching agricultural science subject in the Secondary School?
- Is the number of agricultural science teachers adequate in the Secondary Schools?
- Is the time allocated for the agricultural science practical are suitable and adequate to carry out meaningful practical assignment?
- What are the roles of government, principal and teachers at improving standard of teaching Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools?
HA = There are significant difference among the factors affecting teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
HA = The roles of government, principal and teachers at improving standard of teaching Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools are significant
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Available Facilities for Teaching Agricultural Science
The types of facilities used in the school influence students in interest in agricultural science. Facilities necessary for effective teaching of agricultural science include, among others, are the schools s’ farm as land, agricultural science laboratory for preserving. Specimen and conducting physical and properties of soil tools and equipment, textbooks, livestock, instructional materials and resources. Lack of any of some of these facilities can negate effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schoolsOlaitan, (2002). He stated further that facilities available are very useful in teaching agricultural science where the lesson is practical and theory. The presence of facilities makes the students to learn better and faster. It was further observed by him that the instructional materials to be selected by the teachers should depend on the simplicity to make colourful flexibilities, timeliness and visibilities. The importance land laboratory for the teaching of agricultural science, which of course in agriculture is the school farm and it offers the following advantages:
- It provides students with an opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills in agriculture.
- It enables the students to practice what they have learnt in the classroom.
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