FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SPOKEN ENGLISH IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SPOKEN ENGLISH IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
          English language is a major school
subject in the Nigerian education system. It is not only a medium of
instruction at all levels of education in Nigeria but a pre-requisite to
entering into post-secondary institution. The English language gained
prominence in Nigeria through the missionaries who arrived at Badagry among
which are Henry Townshed and Thomas Bireh Freeman in 1842, of the CMS
Missionary. Their is main purpose is to expand Christianity all over the world.
They were not here to preach the gospel alone but were also engaged in
educational activities. Many homes were established where English and Yoruba
were taught.
          The English language in Nigeria has a
long history. Abiodun (1998) asserts that: Historical records are silent with
regard to the early development of English elsewhere in Nigeria. English
language has been firmly entrenched in Nigeria educational system.
          Kennedy and Bolitho (1984) opine that
students or Nigeria children attitude towards the English language might be as
a result of exposure. Attitudes to an English course maybe influenced by
students previous learning of the English language where the learning has not
been successful, there is bound to be negative feelings towards the learning.
          The English language becomes
inevitable in Nigeria due to its functions. It is regarded as the language of
communication co-operation and better understanding. It is the language of
government and politics.
          Bamisaye (2006) define language as a means
of communication between individual and between groups. This implies that
language can be used in interpersonal communication and inter-group
communication.
Communication within the same person and the same
group, respectively. In either of interpersonal and inter group, communication,
language is invariably the medium employed.
          Language according to Oxford
dictionary (18th edition) is the system of communication in speech or writing
that is used by people of a particular country or area. Language as a
linguistic endowment is one of the major distinguishing features between man
and animal. Both man and animal communicate the former employs language in
communication while they later lack the ability to use language to communicate.
Nigerians believe that without the English language, we cannot do anything,
which led to lingua franca. It has been observed that in Nigeria schooling
system, the English language has advantage in private schools over public
schools because of their mode of teaching. The learning of English by the
Nigerians (blacks) is the effort of the colonial government. There was an
ordinance that compelled private system schools in Nigeria to teach English. It
is stated that the subject of teaching shall be reading and writing of English.
          According to Oyinloye (2000) the basic
language skill are Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening. Oyinloye (2007)
asserts that reading is another skill which linguistics generally described as
a receptive skill. People read in order to collect or retrieve information. The
teaching of reading has to begin at the elementary stage. The teaching of
course is usually combined with listening, the learner has to listen to the
articulation of sounds or words produced by the teacher and later initiate.
          Writing is also a productive skill
like speaking linguistics often describes inviting as a means of externalizing
what has been internalized. It is a skill that can be taught at any stage of
language learning. What to write depends on the ability of the students or the
learners. For a beginner, writing can take the form of making stroke or curves
and later the alphabets. One interesting thing about these language skills is
that they cannot be target in isolation.
          It is however, strongly speculated
that the use of English language in Nigeria pre-dates the first known written
English by Equiaro in 1789 and the use of language through British missionary
and administration activities. There are some set of people who through
schooling became part and parcel of the language and these people were likely
found to be the students of private schools. They are raised up by literate
parent where they have been developed morally, intellectually, financially and
even physically. This study is concerned with the learning and use of the
English language by children in selected Nigerian schools. It is important that
we need to understand the position (status and functions) English in the
society.
          Moreover, the Nigeria local languages
also have their individual and collective status and functions quite distinct
from those of the English language. In addition, we shall examine the concept
of Language acquisition and Language learning.
          According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary Language as the system of communication in speech and writing that
is used by people of a particular country or area. Acquisition means the act of
getting something especially knowledge or a skill.
          English language acquired as the first
language or Mother Tongue in places like England, Canada, U.S.A, and Australia,
but a child born and bred by Yoruba parents having English as the language
spoken at home and in the immediate environment could have English as his
mother tongue. The state of language acquisition begins from Birth-Cry,
Babbling, Lalling, Echolalia and True speech/mono syllabic words.
          To some extent, second acquisition or
learning in children could be a conscious and formal process of making the
learner masters the target language. That is linguistically homogenous, where
all the speakers speak the same language. Thus, almost every linguistic group
in Nigeria is at least minimally represented in some cities especially the
cosmopolitan Lagos.
Consequently, many of the children born in Lagos are
neither Lagosian nor native of Yoruba which is the language of the Western
Nigerians. Such children living in Lagos may grow up to first acquire their
mother tongue. This mother tongue is acquired without the help of any teacher.
Mother tongue is very important in the life of an individual because it is the
first language with which man is exposed to the world around him.
          This research work is therefore
designed to find out and compare the spoken English of student in private and
public schools in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Statement
of the Problem
          As a corollary to the above submission
on English language in Nigeria, it is believed that speakers/users of English
language in Nigeria encounter some difficulties in their daily usage of the
language, most especially in the spoken component. This may be traced to a
number of factors. Hence, the study is set out to analyse the various factors
affecting the learning of spoken English among secondary school students.
Purpose
of the Study
          The purpose of this research is
to  analyze the various factors affecting
the learning of spoken English among secondary school students in Ikere-Ekiti.
          Specifically, the research aims at
establishing the errors that manifest in the oral English of the secondary
school students.
Research
Question
For the purpose of this research the following
questions are asked:
1.    
Do the students encounter any difficulty
in learning the spoken English?
2.    
Do the teachers teach the correct
accents to the students?
3.    
What are the environment factors
responsible for the students’ difficulty in learning spoken English?
4.    
Are the students interested in learning
the correct presentation of English words?
Significance
of the Study
          The study could be useful to students,
teachers, educational agencies and the society as a whole. It will help them to
know the importance of spoken English. The outcome of this study could be
useful in convincing various schools, authorities and educational agencies.
Also, it will enable teachers to encourage students
to communicate often in English language and not to be shy while they want to
say anything.
Scope
of the Study
            The study was carried out in Ikere local government Area
of Ekiti state, to compare the spoken English in both private and public
secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti.
 The selected schools are:
Annunciation
Secondary School
Victory
City College
Comprehensive
High School
God’s
Favour Model College
Amoye
Grammar School
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