EFFECTS OF POLYGYNY MARRIAGE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

EFFECTS OF POLYGYNY MARRIAGE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL 
ABSTRACT
This project is concerned with the
study of the effect of polygyny marriage on the academic performances of senior
secondary schools pupils in Ikere Local government.
The importance of this study is to
know the problems that polygyny creates to the academic pursuit of pupils who
are from such background and the likely precautions against polygyny marriage.
The researcher consulted many
textbooks for more facts, collection of data were made through questionnaires
and oral interview.
It was discovered that:
·                   
Most
academic failures we record today in our schools, majorly fall on children from
polygyny homes.
·                   
All
anti – social behaviour in our society today such as rubbery, prostitution
cocaine pushers are carried out by children from polygyny background.
·                   
75%
of the school dropped outs are children from polygyny homes and broken homes
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                         
Approval Page                                                                                 
Dedication                                                                                        
Acknowledgement                                                                            
Abstract                                                                                           
Table of content                                                                               
CHAPTER ONE
Background of the study                                                                           
Statement of Problems                                                                    
Objectives                                                                                       
Significance of the study                                                                          
Study Area                                                                                       
Definition of Terms                                                                          
CHAPTER TWO
Review of Related Literature                                                            
Biological Family                                                                                      
Nuclear Family                                                                                
Compound Family                                                                           
Joint Family                                                                                              
Types of marriage                                                                                    
Modes of contracting marriage                                                                  
Importance of marriage                                                                    
Causes of Polygyny                                                                         
Parents Educational Attainment                                                                
Effects of Polygyny                                                                           
Parental Encouragement                                                                            
The School Environment                                                                           
CHAPTER THREE
Methodology and Procedure                                                                          
Research Design                                                                               
Population and Sample                                                                    
Research Instrument                                                                        
Data Analysis                                                                                  
Data Collection                                                                                
CHAPTER FOUR
Result and Discussion                                                                      
Discussion and Results                                                                    
Effects of Polygyny                                                                          
The likely effects of polygyny on
children                                       
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary and Conclusion                                                                
Suggestion                                                                                       
Recommendation                                                                             
Conclusion                                                                                   
REFERENCES                                                                                QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                                                  
CHAPTER ONE
Background of the Study
          There are many shades of interest in
Nigeria due to different tribes, states, towns and villages that makes up the
country. Every individual has certain interest of needs both in material and
emotional. The different interest gives rise to the different type of marriage
that abounds in Nigeria.
          The
types of marriage found in Nigeria are polygamous, monogamy extended family to
mention a few. This indulgence has to do with the needs and status of the
individual.
          This
study is prompted by the practice of polygamous in this country and its effect
on the educational performance of a child.
          Polygamous marriage is a system of
marriage in which a man maries more than one wife at a time. The number of
wives which ranges from two to many or may not depend on the status. Religious
and economic capability of the man. This form of marriage was given rise to
what sociologists often refer to as the extended family.
          Thus
Bell and Vogal {1999} define extended family as any grouping broader than the
nuclear family which is related by descent marriage of adoption. This is a
common practice in Nigeria the varying structure of any family from society to
society has brought this practice.
          In
the past polygamous marriage system was practice in Nigeria because the main
occupation was farming.
          According
to Hans Hasabaun (1976) some of the contemporary reasons bought forward in
support of polygamous are as follows;
       i.           
Where
woman still have to bear the burden of work in compound and field thee
polygamous is often regarded as a help.
     ii.           
Polygamous
is further thought to be a solution when tradition calls for a longer period
abstain from sexual relationship during breast feeding.
  iii.           
Childlessness
or the value of having many children in general
  iv.           
Polygamous
takes case of surplus of women, that is prevents prostitution given unmarried
woman protection and new homes for widows.
     v.           
Polygamous
is status symbol
          However,
due to the level of technological advancement and he need to give educational
training to children the polygamous. It is a prestigious club for only those
who are fit in view of the fact that the polygamous structure has not help in
steaming the astronomical population of Nigeria with its attendant problems
{evil} such as children juvenile delinquency and other known child – crimes.
          The
question is then asked, has it anything to do with children from the nuclear
family or children from the polygamous family.
          Thus
children from polygamous family have not faired better in their educational
performance because of the issue raised above which range from lack of
inadequate instructional materials.
Polygyny is an age long marriage
system in the African traditional societies. 
In fact, it is as old as the existence of man in the ancient African
communities.  It is a form of marriage
whereby a man marries two or more wives at a time. (Social studies series 1,
1992:130). Marriage in the olden days was attached to the beliefs that man’s
ability in farm work would earn lion the chance to marry, because agriculture
was at peak then.  If a man is very hard
working, he has access to marry as many wives as he could.  In short, the number of wives a man has a
denotes his strength and wealth in the society.
An average men in the olden days
would have to work so that he might be given more women for marriage.  Also a higher number of children per men were
esteemed so high in the ancient days because they are seen as helping hands in
the farm works for children would leave a renowned burial ceremony after his
death.
Therefore, polygyny form of marriage
has given the opportunity to an average primitive man to have as many children
as he could through his numerous wives and still the entire members of the
families were living happily together.
However, in this modern and civilized
societies, when virtually all their members are enlightened through the
evolution of western civilization, polygyny marriage is creating a lot of
problem into the society, every child wants to go to school so as to fit into
the modern world so the children born into polygyny families are sometimes are
hindered from enjoying these rights. They were unlucky, for their parent cannot
afford to the cost of their schooling, based on the simple fact that were too many
for the parents to sponsor. At this time the mother of the individual children
are now left with the task to make way for her children and so when the mother
realizes that burden is too heavy for her to bear all their own to struggle for
themselves.
Many of these children from polygyny
family usually lack the adequate training and cares that could make them fit
into the social system of this civilized age. As we know that the family is the
bedrock of civilization but polygyny children most of them lack the basic home
training that is expected from a normal child by the society he or she finds
himself. This is why many of these children from polygyny homes fall into or
turn out to become delinquent children around the streets. At school they
behave arrogantly, rude, emotionally unstable and academically backward.
Hence, the4 fundamental training of
children by their parent (father and mother) matters greatly in every child’s
life so as to enable him cope with life challenges in his contemporary society.
Statement of problems
In our society today, particularly in
Ekiti township of
Ekiti state, students are
noted to perform poorly in their work. Observations have shown that most of
these students in this category are from polygyny family background
Polygyny children are very rampant in
schools today. Many factors are responsible for their poor academic
performance. Such factors like lack of adequate care at home, hunger, lack of
adequate materials for the school work and lack of love among others.
In fact, some of these fact that they
have little or no care they became backward in their studies. Most of the
children from this type of family setting do not enjoy the father-child
relationship, mother- child relationship and even sibling-child relationship,
so when they get into the larger community which is the school they are hostile
to colleagues, jealousy among the wives also reflect among children from
polygyny setting.
So, all these factors contribute to
the poor performance on child’s academic pursuit. A realization of the factors
may evolve solution to be sought that is what this study seeks to achieve.
Objectives
The purposes of carrying out this
research is to find out the following:
                  
i.           
To
trace the practice of polygyny in the society.
                
ii.           
To
identify the influence of polygyny on school children.
             
iii.           
To
examine the effects of polygyny in the society.
             
iv.           
To
suggest solutions to the probable negative effects of polygyny.
Significance of the study
          This
research work is useful to teacher in the primary schools and secondary schools
level, to school counselors, educators and even parents of polygyny families in
Ikere, Ado state capital.
Study Area
          The
town under study is Ikere in Ikere Ekiti local government of Ekiti State. Ado is the State capital of Ekiti State.
The main occupation of the inhabitants is farming, although some of them are
engaged in petty trading and some in the government services particularly in
teaching line.
          The
climatic condition of the town is favorable to cocoa and some other cash crops.
The weather is usually list in the day and fairly cold in the night. The
rainfall is usually between March and October while the dry season is between
November and March.
                       Although
polygyny family form is in practice in some parts of Nigeria in fact almost all
the thirty-seven (37) States in Nigeria practice polygyny. However, I shall
limit my research to J.S.S. level in Ekiti due to cost and time limit.
Definition of Terms
The following terminologies shall be
defined in this study.
Monogamy
It is a system of marriage that
enjoins the marriage of one male and one female.
Polyandry
It is a marriage which involves a
woman marrying two or more husbands at the same time.
Eshleman and cashion says where
polyandry is practiced, the co-husbands are usually brothers, either blood
brothers or clan brothers who belong to the same clan.
Polygyny
It is a form of marriage in which
powerful or wealthy man or men take more than one wife.
Endogamy
It is the practice of marriage within
one’s group e.g. social, class, such as the rich marrying the rich and the poor
marrying the poor.  It might haven be
racial i.e. negro versus negro or religious set.
Sorotate
Is a situation whereby a man marries
his Wise’s sister before or after his wife’s death.
Levirate
This is a situation whereby a brother
inherits his deed brother’s wife.
Matrilineal
This is a marriage in which descent
or lineage is traced through the father’s family.



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