FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CHOOSING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AS A CAREER AFTER THEIR SECONDARY EDUCATION.

FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN
CHOOSING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AS A CAREER AFTER THEIR SECONDARY EDUCATION.

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CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
Career is
the sequence of occupation, job or position occupied by a person during his
entire life. Therefore, it is an accepted fact that one should choose and
prepare for  a carer ealy enough in life. Hence, Secondary school
agricultural students need to be exposed to career opportunities in
agriculture.
         
Agriculture according to Egbe (2004) is an art, a science, a business,
profession, occupation and industry for production of food and fibre for man’s
use. It is very extensive in scope and has many career opportunities. Egbe
(2004) listed the careers open for students of agriculture in the areas of (i)
Self-reliance in production of various crops, fishery, poultry, pigery,
rabitary, or distribution of farm produce. (ii) Civil service  work in
Ministry of Agriculture, National Directorate of Employment, Agricultural
agencies e.t.c. (iii) Research Stations (iv) Agro-allied industries like
detergents, processing, supplies, textiles, feed meals e.t.c.
         
The choice of any of these careers may be influenced by certain factors. Okorie
(2010) said that factors that limit choice of occupation are the things that
prevent individuals from entering into the occupation. He stresses further that
those factors as the nature of preparation, job remunerations, returns to
the  occupations, motivation and incentives, technicality
involved   in the occupation and the status of the job. In a similar
manner, Eze (2014) enumerated factors that limit students choice of
agricultural occupations as the level of exposure to carer occupations, quality
of teaching agriculture, returns to agriculture projects, availability of
inputs for agricultural enterprise, and public image of agricultural
occupations. In this study, factors that affect choice of agricultural career
by secondary  school students refer to cause of poor retention of
graduates in agric jobs.
In the past, students who had an
interest in agriculture went home to work on the family farm after graduating
from high school or college. Some students even went on to start a small farm
with the idea of expanding. There was less variety among jobs in the
agricultural field in the past compared to present day agriculture (Thiesse,
2012). Farming in the past was more out of necessity than source of income.
Farm families were often large to support the labor needs of the farm
(Steadman, 2012).
Today,
agriculture is more advanced and the job field has expanded opportunities for
graduating students. Agriculture represents 1.6% of all jobs in the United
States and 5.9% of jobs in rural areas of the United States (USDA, 2009).
Agriculture affects U.S. employment indirectly by supporting industries such as
agricultural services and agricultural processing and marketing (USDA, 2009).
Students now have opportunities to work in specific concentrations instead of
going back home to work on the farm (Thiesse, 2012). Students now have the
option to work in many areas including teaching (for example, working as
extension agents to educate local farmers), marketing for companies such as
machinery and crop production service companies, commodity trading, or working
in agricultural production.
Many factors can influence come into play when college students
choice of career path. Students will typically take into account the quality of
life they want when they are older. 
Factors such as interest in field, academic ability, familiarity,
economic stability, and influential people can all play a role in the decision.
Some students grow up knowing what they want to do in life. These
are the students who will go the extra mile to reach their dream job. However,
students often settle on a different path due to many factors they can’t
control. Students will research their chosen career path and explore everything
about it. The salary and benefits of that job do not play a role in this
decision. In a research study the factor “match with interest” rated over job
characteristics, major attributes, and psychological and social benefits in
importance when students choose a major (Beggs et a ., 2015). Students will
seek out schools that are well known for that major or trade.. Most students
today are more concerned with the amount of money they can earn. However, there
are a few students who pursue their dreams (Mcglynn, 2007).
Many students choose their major based on their academic ability
(Beggs et al., 2008). However, some students do not have the ability or the
work habits to succeed in some majors that may require more study than other
fields of studies. These students may find a better fit in a less work
intensive major that requires fewer difficult classes. This affects the career
paths of these students. Other students have the ability to handle majors with
greater workloads and choose the career path that will lead to a job requiring
more education. Examples in this category include veterinarians, doctors, or
lawyers. For jobs such as these, students need more than one degree.
On the other hand, some students have the drive to put in the work
in very labor intensive fields but do not have the intelligence to perform the
tasks that are needed for their chosen field (Beggs et al., 2008). These
students often receive help from tutors, special education teachers, and
special exceptions when taking exams and doing homework. Students are given
every opportunity to excel and work in their field.
Statement
of the Problem
It has
been generally observed that the number of secondary school graduates 
taking agriculture as a career is low  as majority of farmers in the study
area are adult farmers. There must be some variables which are responsible for
the low choice of agriculture as a carer by secondary school graduates. These
variables or factors have not been determined in the study area because there is
no record on the causes   of low choice of agriculture as a career. As
the factors militating choice of agriculture as a career are not determined.
It  is very difficult  for the teachers and stakeholders of
agriculture education programme to improve the teaching of agriculture so that
graduates of the course can choose it as a career. If this problem is allowed
to continue, it will adversely reduce the workforce and agricultural
productivity. It is therefore necessary to determine factors affecting choice
of agriculture as a career by secondary school graduates for the purpose of
improving agricultural programmes, food production and retention of graduates
in the job
Purpose of
the Study
The
general purpose of the study is to determine those factors that are affecting
secondary school students in choosing agricultural science as a career after
their secondary education.
The specific objective will
determine
1.  The factor
affecting students choice of agricultural science as a career after secondary
school
2.  If teacher
character influence secondary school students in taking agriculture as a career
choice after secondary school 
3.  To find out what influence students in taking
Agriculture as a career choice
4.  To find out if gender influence students in taking
agriculture as a career  
Research
Question
The following research question were stated to guide the study
1. 
What are the factor affecting students choice of
agricultural science as a career after secondary school?
2. 
Does the teacher character influence secondary
school students in taking agriculture as a career choice after secondary school?
3. 
what influence
students in taking Agriculture as a career choice?
4. 
does  students gender influence their choice of
taking agriculture as a career?
Research Hypothesis
the following null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significant
1.  There is no significance difference on the factors
affecting students choice of agricultural science as a career
2.  Teachers character does not have significant effect
on students choice of taking agriculture as a career choice after secondary
school
3.  There is no significant difference on the factors
influence students in taking agriculture as a career
4.  Gender does not influence students in their choice
of career
Significance
of the Study
The study is of relevant for the following reasons:
i.           
.Career
development enable individual to implement life image and this can contribute
to actualization especially when vocational development is in harmony with the
fulfillment of life goals.
ii.          
The study is important
because it will help the various factors affecting secondary school students
choice of career in ———- Local Government with a view of helping the
student in the choice of career.
iii.        
It will create
the awareness in students of the various factor that can affect students choice
of career and the implication.
iv.        
Teachers will
find this study successful in that they will be aware of their role in helping
students to choose the subject that will lead to their choice of career.
v.         
It will help
parent not to force some career on their children who might not be good in the
subject area more important, the study will help to project the importance of a
guidance counselor in the school system in helping students to choose their
type of career.
SCOPE OF
THE STUDY
This study could not cover all secondary school in
—– Local Government due to the constraint of time which the study his posed
to the researchers.
Five secondary school in ——– Local Government.
Was examined.
i.           
Wiloogun Grammar
School, Ilupeji, Ijan-Ekiti
ii.          
Ayo-Daramola
Memorial School, Ijan-Ekiti
iii.        
Ijamodu High
School, Ijan-Ekiti
iv.        
Romic
International Group of Schools, Ijan-Ekiti
v.         
Community
Grammar School, Ijan-Ekiti
Since limited number of student are to be observed
on comparison with the total number of students in all secondary schools in
Ekiti State, it therefore meant that there is limitation as to be extent to
which generalization can be made about factors affecting  choice of agricultural science as a career
choice after secondary school
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

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