FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRACTICAL PERFORMANCES OF STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY IN SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE EKITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE, NIGERIA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                             i
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                    ii
CERTIFICATION                                                                                      iii
DEDICATION                                                                                           iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                          v
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           vii
ABSTRACT                                                                                               x

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION                                                                   1
    • Background of the study                   1
    • Statement of the problem 3
    • Purpose of the study                                                          4
    • Significance of Study                                                                    5
    • Delimitations of the study                                                 5
    • Research Questions                                                                    5
    • Hypotheses 6
    • Definition of terms 7

CHAPTER TWO

  • REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8
    • Effects of Student’s Attitude toward Practical Performance 9
    • Relationship between School Teachers, Quality and Student’s Academic Performance 11
    • Effect of Laboratory and Library Facilities and Science Teaching 12
    • Influence of Parent’s Attitude and Home Environment on Students Practical Performance           14
    • Inappropriate Teaching Method on the Part of the Teacher 16

CHAPTER THREE

  • METHODOLOGY                              19
    • Research Design           19
    • Population of the Study 19
    • Sample of the Study                    20
    • Instrument for Data Collection           20
    • Validation of Research Instrument           20
    • Administration of the Instrument           21
    • Data Analysis Technique 21
    • Procedure of Data Collection 21
    • Problem Encountered during Data Collection 22

CHAPTER FOUR

  • PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA           23
    • Result and Discussion 23
    • Discussion 28

CHAPTER FIVE

  • SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32
    • Summary           32
    • Conclusion 33
    • Recommendations 33
    • Suggestions for Further Studies 35

REFERENCES                                                                                 36
APPENDIX                                                                                                39

ABSTRACT
This
study investigated the effect of environmental factors affecting
practical performance of students in chemistry; A case study of Ikere
Ekiti local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A well-structured
questionnaire was used and the research population used consisted of two
hundred (200) students randomly selected from five (5) public senior
secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State,
the schools chosen consisted of 5 co-educational schools. The data
collected were analyzed using Chi-Square goodness of fit technique and
the result was upheld at 0.05 level of significance. Significant
differences were obtained in all the hypotheses tested.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the study
The
importance of education in developing nations like Nigeria cannot be
over emphasized. Science is like a catalyst affecting the rate of
changes within the society, the more dynamic a society is the better the
development.
The rate of academic performance in chemistry have
been influenced by nature of the environment, the nature of a society
directly determines the status of science in that society. An illiterate
and highly superstitious society will give very little attention
towards growth and development of science. A poor society can only
invest in science within the limit of its financial capability
(Iyewarun, 1983).
Chemistry by definition is preoccupied with the
nature of matter and its transformation. It contributes to the wealth of
any nation because it embraces all the processes occurring in
industries. It should be noted that technology is an application of
science and that each society has its own technological improvement in
the society, however depends on the advancement in the field of science
and society has a mutual influence. The nature however has to take
initial step in setting scientific activities in motion (Owolabi, 2000).
Chemistry
stand as one of the basic and fundamental tools to every living either
at home, in schools and in our environment, that is why chemistry is one
of the core subject of science subjects in senior secondary schools.
Performance is an evidence of knowledge attained on skills development
as shown by the score grade achievement in a test or examination. It
should also be subject to task reforming of the individual ability in
the subject or task (Mash, 1975).
The two major factors that
influence the performance of students in chemistry are internal and
external factors. The internal factors include the intelligence of an
individual, personality trout such as self-concept, attitude, age, sex,
religion etc. The external factors include environment in which child is
developed, the type of socio-economic status of the parents, the type
of teachers, the type of society and institutions that surround the
child, the school site can also influence the academic performance of
students whether it is located in the noisy environment or in an
industrial area where definite noise would be militating against the
rate of learning which can result in poor academic performance of the
students (Egalitrian, 1986).
Practical performance was detected
within Nigeria society, parents and environment. Parents are seriously
implication because of the struggle for national gains and desperate
urge for cash has filtered away responsibilities of parent to the child.
Due to the poor performance in practical in the Nigeria education,
government introduced National Policy on Education (NPE). Federal
government adopted education as instrument per excellent for affecting
national development (Scannel, 1984).
Laboratory equipment for the
teaching of science (Abdulahi, 2000). The first school to set up
chemistry laboratory in Nigeria is “the kings college in Lagos”. Despite
the importance of laboratory to the teaching of science subjects, many
schools are without a laboratory while many of the secondary schools
have minimum facilities which cannot but hinder learning activities
especially science which has laboratory as their backbone.
1.2     Statement of the Problem
Chemistry
is a subject which should not be taught in abstract. It has been
observed and noted that government, school heads and stakeholders do not
provide adequate practical materials for the teaching of chemistry in
schools in Nigeria. Therefore Azikwe (1906) suggested that the teacher
should do all within his power to provide instructional materials when
he cannot be provided with the needed and necessary practical materials.
This
is because the use of instructional materials in teaching chemistry
enhances easy learning and stimulating influence. The act of making the
teaching and learning of chemistry as chalk and talk method should be
discourage.
1.3     Purpose of the Study
This study is aimed at determining the factors affecting the practical performance of students in chemistry.
The purpose of the study is to:

  • Determine the environment on the learning of science subject.
  • Determine the effect of laboratory facilities on the teaching and learning of chemistry.
  • Determine the importance of chemistry teacher and trained personnel in the teaching and learning of practical chemistry.
  • Demonstrate both the teachers’ and students’ attitude towards the use of instructional aids.

1.4     Significance of the Study
The
study will assist science teachers especially chemistry teachers in
secondary schools to know the implication of teaching without putting
the environment in which the child was brought up to consideration and
availability of facilities.
It will provide information for
further investigation on the impact of environmental factor on students’
practical performance in science especially in chemistry.
1.5     Delimitations of the Study
This
study was restricted to the influence of environmental factors in some
selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti
State of Nigeria.
1.6     Research Questions
The
following questions were raised in examining the problem, the questions
were also meant to guide the researcher and to give the work a more
analytical look.

  • Is there any significance difference between students’ practical performance and parental attitude?
  • Is
    there any significance difference between the performance of students
    from schools with well-equipped laboratories and students from schools
    with ill-equipped laboratories?
  • Is there any significance
    difference between the performance of students taught by non-graduate
    chemistry teachers and graduate teachers?
  • Is there any
    significant difference in the performance of students in WAEC between
    those who were exposed to practical materials and those who were not?
  • Does the use of practical materials sustain the interest of the learners?

1.7     Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were raised for the study;

  • There is a significant difference between the performance of students and parental attitude
  • There
    is a significant difference in the performance of students in school
    with well – equipped laboratories and students from school with ill-
    equipped laboratories
  • There is a significant difference in the
    performance of students taught   by   graduate   and   the   students  
    taught   by   non-graduate chemistry teachers.
  • There is a
    significant difference in the performance of students in Chemistry,
    between students exposed to well-equipped libraries and exposed to
    ill-equipped libraries

1.8     Definition of Terms
Environment: This is the natural and man-made components of plant earth in which people and other living thing lives.
Science:
This is a subject that is invariably with us at all time, at home, in
the classroom and also in the industry. It is also present in all
aspects of life.
Laboratory: It is a building set
apart for scientific findings or inquiry. It is a place usually a room
where scientific experiments are performed by the use of apparatus and
chemical reagents.
Practical Performance: This is
an evidence of knowledge attained on a skill development as shown by
the score or grade achieved in a test or examination.

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