Education, either formal or informal continues to
shape the three domains of human development. These are the cognitive,
affective and the psychomotor domains. Much then is said that formal education remains
the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any
society. Therefore, education at the basic level must be of a quality that will
help the young ones to acquire skills, knowledge, values and attitudes that
will enable them to contribute positively to the social, economic, political
and moral development of the society.
Poor academic  performance
according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the
examine/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected
standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects
especially Mathematics and English language among primary school pupils
(Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only
frustrating to the pupils and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the
society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and
Education at primary school
level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge
in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can
be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological,
scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on
Education (2004) stipulated that primary education is an instrument for
national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual
for further education and development, general development of the society and
equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children irrespective of
any real or marginal disabilities.
The role of primary education is to lay the
foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this
level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However,
different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance
in primary school to pupils because of their low retention, parental factors,
association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, and the likes
(Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).
Morakinyo (2003) believe that the falling level
of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal
reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to
their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school,
unsavory comments about pupil’s performance that could damage their ego, poor
method of teaching and the likes affect pupils’ academic performance.
content of Nigeria education must reflect the past present and future of the
dynamic Nigeria society in terms of the roles the individual is expected to
play in the resent modernalization process. 
The Nigeria formal education system is the organized and structured
aspect of the education which takes place within the four walls of the
school.  It however has to be noted that,
all emphasis in terms of government budgetary allocation and general planning,
is usually placed on formal education. 
Hence, a discussion of Nigeria’s educational system is almost synonymous
with a discussion of the formal educational system.  As has been pointed earlier, the formal
education system comprises interrelated sub-system or levels.  The major levels of the Nigerian educational
system are primary, secondary, (post primary), and tertiary (Post Secondary)
  Since the introduction of formal education in
Nigeria, various conferences and seminars have been held and Commissions set up
to deliberate on crucial issues in the Nigeria educational system.  Of remarkable significance are the National
Curriculum Conference in 1969 which reviewed old, and identified new national
goals for Nigeria’s educational system and the 1973 seminar of distinguished educational
experts and representatives of all segments of the society under the
chairmanship of chief S.O. Adebo which renewed the 1969 paper and made more
            Besides the numerous other
recommendations in this respect, recommendations number 8 dealt with the goals
of primary education.  It reads thus:
            “Specifically, the primary school
Curriculum must aim at functional permanent literacy to ensure better producers
and consumers of goods. It should provide a sound basis for scientific and
reflective thinking; inculcate citizenship education and a sound moral
character and attitude development, help individuals to adapt and a adjust to
the changing society, give physical, emotional and intellectual growth, enhance
an individual sense of will power, creative and innovativeness, develop their
mechanical vocational and manipulative skills and competencies enable them to
communicate freely and effectively through any media, imbibe in them a spirit
of self – discipline (Fafunwa, 1974:233)
This statement
however, is the beginning of redirecting primary education in Nigeria toward a
reasonable end, and a way from production of only church teachers and
Academic performance of pupils in primary schools has
received much attention of late in the 
Nigerian educational system.
is pertiment to understand that the so – called academic performance of primary
school pupil is a Cankar worm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our
primary schools today.  However, in
environment where such an ugly situation is found, tention, conflict and
anarchy dictate the tone of relationship between pupils, the teachers for a
smooth and effective school management. Since the end of the Nigeria Biafra
Civil War in 1970, academic excellence has been on the decline.  This appears to be more pronounced in the
primary schools.  Poor academic
performance has constituted a big problem not only for schools but the dynamic
Nigeria society.  The primary schools in
Ikere Ekiti have been faced with the problem, which is mostly reflected in
common Entrance Examination Results.  Millions
of Naira being pumped into education in Nigeria in general and in Ekiti State
in particular not withstanding this issue of poor performance in education has
continued to persist.
            The question therefore is what is
the factor that is responsible for 
fallen standard and poor academic performance of pupils in primary
school? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or pupils or both of them? Is it
that pupils of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent
quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think
rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers
are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it  in teachers’ method of teaching and
interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’
neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out
the factor that is responsible  of
poor  performance of pupils in primary
schools in Ikere Local government Area.
Purpose of the
The broad
objective of this study is to investigate the factor responsible for poor
academic performance of pupil in public primary schools in Ikere local
Government area of Ekiti state
To be able to
achieve this objective the following specific objective is considered:
Ø  To determine
whether the teacher commitment to teaching and work habit can be responsible
for pupil poor performance in public schools in Ikere Local Government Area
Ø  To find out the
opinion of school counselors and their view of factors responsible for poor
performance of Pupils in Public schools in Ikere Ekiti
Ø  To determine
whether teacher qualification, availability and use of teaching materials and
parental involvement can causes poor performance of  pupil
Ø  To also
determine whether motivation and job satisfaction can cause poor performance of
pupils in public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area, and to offer
suggestion on how the problem can be solved.
This study thus
attempts to find answers to the under mentioned research questions and find out
where the problem lies:
there any relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit
and the performance of pupils in public secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti
there any relationship between teacher qualification and teaching environment
and the performance of Pupils in Ikere Local Government Area?
there any relationship between availability and uses of teaching and learning
materials and the performance of pupils in Ikere Local Government Area?
What are the major factor responsible to pupil poor
performance in Public primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area.


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