EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

ABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                               
Approval page                                                                       
Certification                                                                           
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                
Table of contents                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
I       INTRODUCTION                                             
          Background of the study                                           
Statement of the problem                                                   
Significance of the study                                                      
Scope of the study                                                                
Research questions                                                              
Limitation of the study                                                 
Purpose of the study                                                     
II       REVIEW OF LITERATURE                        
III     METHODOLOGY                                            
Population of the study                                                 
and sampling technique                                             
Descriptions of data gathering instrument             
Validation of the instrument                                     
Administration of the instrument                            
Method of data collection                                          
Data analysis                                                               
IV     PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA       
V       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND           Summary                                                                      
          Conclusion                                                           
Recommendations                                                       
Suggestion for future research                                  
References                                                                     

          Questionnaire                                                                
 ABSTRACT
This
study focused on the evaluation of factors affecting teaching and
learning of Agricultural Science in secondary schools in
Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government Area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State. The
findings revealed that there no adequate facilities in the school for
effective teaching and learning. Parent’s attitudes towards Agricultural
Science as a subject is another factor militating against the effective
teaching and learning of Agricultural science, because they use to
discourage their children toward offering the subject. It was also
gathered that lack of interest in Agricultural science by students is
one of the factors affecting teaching and learning of Agricultural
science in secondary schools. Implications of the findings were
discussed and a number of recommendations made on how to make teaching
and learning of agricultural science in the secondary schools more
effective and rewarding.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Agriculture
is the science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating land,
producing crops, feeding, breeding and raising livestock, farming.
Agriculture is the simplification of nature’s food webs and the
rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. To
simplify, agriculture involves redirecting natures natural flow web is
the sum provides light to plants.
The importance of agriculture as
a vocational subject to students in secondary schools and the entire
human race cannot be disregarded as it prepares them to become
responsible and dependable people in the society. It is such an
education that makes people to be self reliant and self employed.
Teaching
and learning of agricultural science had been given a thorough research
by many researchers. Teaching can be defined as the impactation of
knowledge. According to Akinpelu (1992), teaching is a body of actions
intended to induce learning. He further defined teaching as the
conscious and deliberate effort by a matured or experience person with
intention that the student will learn or believe what is taught on a
rational basis. According to Oyinloye G.O. (1995) teaching is defined as
activities undertaken by a more experienced and knowledgeable person in
order to make others learn. He further pointed out that teaching
involve influencing someone to change ones attitude on the basis of new
skills, knowledge and appreciation. However, learning on the part of
learner is very important because it can either be positive or negative
depending on what was disseminated.
Learning according to Franz (1939), involves, and in reality consists of a modification of instinctive or reflex responses.
King (1972) defined learning as a permanent change in behavior resulting from the conditions of practice.
However,
learning is thus generally accepted and defined as any relatively
permanent change in behavior which occurs at a result of practice or
experience.
Teaching and learning of Agricultural science as a
subject does not only take place within the wall of an institution but
also in our everyday engagements. It also involves practical’s.
From
a layman’s point of view, agricultural science as subject is seen as a
simple and very easy subject, most people see it as just production of
crops and animal that are useful to man, but the concept of agricultural
science means the art and science of production of plant and animal
that are useful to man, that is, agricultural science is an art at the
same time it is also a science. Some techniques are involved in
Agricultural practices. There include seed rate, planting distance,
diameter of the ridges, the climatic and soil requirement, diseases and
pest infestation among others, similarly, other like animal production
and the technicalities involved, agricultural economics, management and
practices needed to be taught to the students.
Agricultural
science does not only provide food for the masses but also serves as one
of the major sources of national revenue and principal foreign exchange
earner. Agricultural also serves as a source of gainful employment. How
ever Okpara (1982), suggested that our National development effort must
be one where agriculture has a clear and unequivocational priority both
in theory and practical in our secondary schools today, the realistic
approach towards making the teaching and learning of agricultural
science attractive to both teacher and pupils has not been made.
Inspite
of government numerous effort like establishment or more agriculture
schools, encouragement of university to run agricultural education
programme and training of agricultural education teachers with
government emphasis and directive on farming and the teaching of
agricultural science in the schools should have expected a very transit
change in food production and farming activities but that has not been
the case. This is mainly due to problems associated with the teaching
and learning of agricultural science in the secondary schools.
According
to the national policy on education, the objectives of secondary
schools are to prepare students for a useful living in a science and
technological oriented society and to equip students with the skills
necessary for copping with the demand of higher education. In pursuit of
these two objectives, the policy describe agricultural science as a
core subject not only at the junior but also at senior secondary school
level.
Statement of the Problems
The new
curriculum in agricultural science in secondary schools will provide for
the interest of the learner and the need of the society in general if
properly implemented.
Okorie (1974) found out that Nigeria
secondary school students have no regard for agricultural science. They
have little or no interest in pursuing it as a course of study, while
some have even dropped it before registering their subjects for the
senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE). It is observed with
dismay the half hearted way secondary school students participate in
agriculture in schools and the alarming rate at which those who have
left school drift to the urban centres for white collar jobs.
MKPA
(1926), Hayes (1973) and Isaiah Folorunso (1980) were of the view that
some factors are responsible for the attitude of students towards the
learning of agricultural science which are:-

  • The school setting
  • Home influence
  • Poverty
  • Poor method of teaching
  • Lack of poor evaluation techniques
  • Instructional materials

Against
this background, this study was designed to examine the altitudes of
students towards learning of agricultural science in secondary schools
in Ifedora Local Government Area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
There
has been much reports on the poor image of agricultural science in
secondary schools. Some people attribute this to youths unwillingness to
study agricultural as a profession.
Some still claim that
teachers of agriculture fail to arouse the interest of students towards
the study of agriculture, while some maintain that the pogramme
implementation coupled with lack of necessary infrastructures are the
cause.
The objectives of this study are to determine:-

  1. Whether agricultural science were taught in all schools that responded to the survey.
  2. To
    evaluate the attitude of Irepodun / Ifelodun Local Government secondary
    school students towards learning of agricultural science.
  3. If secondary schools in the local government have special laboratories for agricultural science teaching.
  4. Agricultural science teachers in the local government enjoy consultant service from the specialist in agriculture.

Significance of the Study
Nigeria
with all her agricultural potentialities cannot produce enough food for
her populace and enough raw materials to sustain her home industries.
This problem can partly be solved by a redirection of youths towards
agricultural education being the centre nerve for the development of any
country. However, the vehicle that carries development is the teaching
profession, and it is entrusted in the hands of teachers. It is
necessary to find out how learners perceive effective teaching and the
factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in
secondary schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government area of Igede
Ekiti, Ekiti State. This will be useful to education administrators and
teachers so that teaching and learning of the subject can be made more
effective.
Hence, the outcome of this study will be an possible
area of assistance which could enhance students better performance in
the subject, and could also provide some information to help the
students overcome their problems in agricultural science.
Research Questions
The following research questions were raised and it is hoped that the answers to these questions will be useful for the study.

  1. Are all schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government has agricultural science teacher?
  2. What are the attitude of students in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government towards learning of agricultural science
  3. What are the agricultural science teaching facilities present in the schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government
  4. To what extent do the teachers of agricultural science in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government undergo retaining programmes.

Assumption of the Study
The study covered some few schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun local government area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State.
This study is limited due to time and financial constraints thus making it possible for a large sample to be used for the study.
Limitation of the Study
The
researches were based on evaluating the factors affecting teaching and
learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in
Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Definition of Term
Agriculture: Raising management of crops and animals for the purpose of man’s use
Evaluation:
Evaluation can be defined as both quantitative and qualitative
description of an object plus value judgment. It is also a process of
determining the extent to which an instructional objectives are achieved
by the learners.
Teaching: The act, process, or art of the impacting knowledge and skills.
Learning: The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study.
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