Chapter one
1.0     Introduction
studies is the interdisciplinary integration of social science and humanities
concepts for the purpose of practicing problem solving and decision making for
developing citizenship skills on critical social issues.
I think this is a useful definition. It
emphasizes the ultimate goal process teaching – to help students think
critically and to use what they know to be active citizens. I have a definition,
Social studies is the study of people.
Social studies should help students acquire knowledge, master the process of
learning, and become active citizens.
A closer look at my definition and a
discussion of those provided by the NCSS and Professor Barth should bring
social studies into sharper focus.
studies is the study of people are the domain process. This includes people as
nearby as family and as far away as those who live in the most distant nations.
It includes people living now, those who lived long ago, and those who will
live in the future. Social studies has the potential to be the best part of the
school day because it is when children connect with other people. As children
learn about others, they will be fascinated by differences among cultural
groups, while at the same time they will find the commonalities that create a
shared sense of humanity. It is a complex task to teach about people, and information
must come from many fields of study. The NCSS definition points out that it is
the various disciplines of the social sciences and humanities that provide the
content for what is taught during social studies. While history and geography
should serve as the core process, it is imperative that the other social
sciences are not neglected; rather, they should be a significant part of every
social studies program. The other social sciences are anthropology, economics,
philosophy political science, psychology, religion, and sociology.
1.1     Background of the Study
is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to
the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their
communities and the nation as a whole. Primary school is no doubt the
foundation of education and has prominently been regarded as a fundamental
human right. It is an essential component of human capital and it plays an
important role in economic growth and development of a country. Primary education,
therefore, remains an important areas that should be carefully managed.
A study conducted by Kietu and
Sunderland (2000) at the Lancaster University found out that five or more years
of a farmer’s primary education led to increased farm productivity, reduced
size of farm labour and increased use of yield augmenting inputs. This means
that by acquiring primary education one can increase one’s earnings (Kitetu,
1998). The school environment refers to factors within the school that
influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms,
library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among
others variables that can influence the teaching –learning process (Ajayi 2
2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the
school environment provides to the learners and the teacher. It is believed
that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that
will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective
teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this
study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persuade and
Turner (2008) quoting Marsden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly
classroom environment, schools. In developed countries like the United Kingdom
and the Unites Kingdom and the Unites States of America, teaching and learning
may not be influenced by similar challenges as in the developing countries. As
the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the
parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education
without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector measures
to ensure all public primary schools have all the required physical facilities,
instructional materials among others variables that may lead to effective
teaching-learning process. Instructional materials are a major component in the
process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost
effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency
of schools (Psachropoulous & Woodhall, 1995). 3 in the developing
countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key
factors that lead to poor performance in public primary schools (UNICEF, 2003).
This is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased
enrolment. In Uganda, physical characteristics of the school have a variety of
effects on the teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise,
high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperature make
teaching –learning process difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation
systems lead to poor health among the pupils and higher absentee rates among
pupils (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf, 2001). Beyond the direct
effects that poor facilities have on pupils ability to learn, the combination
of poor facilities which creates uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for the
teachers combined with frustrating behavior by the pupil including poor
concentration also have an effect on the teaching learning process. the
situation is not any different here in Kenya where several schools suffer due
to lack of or inadequacy of physical facilities and instructional materials
(UNICEF, 2003). Unless schools are adequately provided with physical facilities
and instructional materials, effective teaching and learning may not take
place. Class size has also been an issue that influences the teaching-learning
process in most schools in the developing countries. In Kenya, since the
inception of Free Primary Education (FPE), there has been increased enrolment
which leads to overcrowding in classrooms making the work of the teacher
difficult 4 since he/she cannot easily move around in the classroom (Wabuoba,
2011) quoted in Chuma (2012). The school administration is a crucial factor in
the success of a school. The head teacher should be in a position to ensure
that all factors within the school that make the school environment favourable for
teaching-learning process be put in place to ensure quality standards are
maintained. The Education Act of 1968 stipulates that the head teacher is
responsible for overall management, control and maintenance of standards in the
schools and is accountable for all that happens in the school. He is charged
with the duty of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting and
budgeting (Okumbe, 2001). The head teacher is the seen as the first supervisor
and therefore should always ensure that effective teaching-learning is taking
place in the school. Teaching-learning process can be measured through
assessment that is done to pupils using continuous assessment tests (CATS),
standardized examination like the sub-country MOCK and the Kenya Certificate of
Primary Education (KCPE). In Lower Nyokal divisions school environmental
factors such as availability of instructional materials, availability of
physical facilities, class size and school location are factors within the
school that may influence the teaching-learning process in Homa-Bay district.
Effective teaching-learning process may not take place when rate of repetition,
drop out and absenteeism seems to be high in the division and this influences
performance of learners.
enviable position which social science education system of most countries of
the world, including Nigeria is perhaps justifiable. The reason is that social
science can exert a dominant, if not decisive influence the life of individual
as well as on the developmental effort of a nation (Emovon, 1985). The
universal recognition of the above submission is responsible for the prime
position that has been accorded social science and in particular, social
studies worldwide. Within the context of social science education, social
science has been identified as a very important school subject and its
importance in recognition given to the study core in the development of the
individual and the nation that is made a core-subject among the core and other
commercial development of any nation has been widely reported. It was as a
result of the related courses in the Nigerian education system. Its inclusion
as a core subject in social science in the secondary school calls for the
teaching of it effectively. This is because environments determine the learning
which leads to the attainment of greatness.
and Kaplan, 1998), the environment plays a significant role during the learning
process and they can directly or indirectly influence students attitudes
toward, which is consequence can influence students’ performance. Environment
are, invariably, role models whose behaviors are easily mimicked by student.
What is environment likes or dislikes, appreciates and how they feel about
their learning or studies could have a significant effect on the students. By
extension, how environment influence, how they influence how students interact
within can be more paramount than the teacher teach.
relationship between school location and student academic performance in economic
has been widely reported. Adepoju, (2001) found that students in urban schools
manifest more brilliant performance than their rural counterparts. Also,
Ogunleye (2002) Ndukwu (2002), Odinko (2002) and Warwick (1992) reported a
significant difference in the achievement of student in urban peri-urban areas.      
Daramola cited in Ogunleye (2002), and Orji (1997) did not find any significant
difference in the urban and peri-urban schools.
view of these conflicting reports, there is the need to carry out a study with
a view to determining which of the selected variables will have causal
relationship with student performance in economic in Ekiti State.
study intends to pinpoint the environmental factors influencing the teaching
and learning of economics in Ekiti State in Nigeria.
studies Inyang –Abia Esu (2004) posited that social studies is an
interdisciplinary subject which enables the learners to acquire wide knowledge
of the surrounding complex phenomena and forces that influence man in his
society. In line with the above definition, Edinyang and Mezieobi (2013) posits
that social studies has been defined in Nigeria as an integrated field of study
that probes man’s environmental relationships and imbues man with high level intellectual
skills social skills and competencies germane to solving man’s environmental diverse
problems for better and effective living. Social studies is a program of study which
a society uses to instill in students or learners the knowledge, skill,
attitude and actions it considers important in (Kissock 1981) defined culture
as a groups benefit to the Nigerian society. Bullivant (1993) defines  a group’s program for survival in and
adaptation to its environment. The cultural program consists of knowledge,
concepts and values shared by group members through systems of communication.
Culture also consists of the shared beliefs, symbols and interpretations within
a human group. The essence of culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other
tangible cultural elements but how the members of a group interpret, use,
distinguish one people from another in modernized (Banks, 1994a, 1994b). people
within a culture usually interpret the meaning of (2001: 13) is a change in
behavior or performance, which is as a result of experience and behavior or
performance should lead to observable or demonstrable improvement if learning
permanent change in behavior as a result of practice and experience. The desire
or wish of all parents is that their children should go to school and acquire
qualitative education that can equip them with skills, knowledge and good
character qualitative education that can equip them with skills, knowledge and
good character that can make them competent, well adjusted and effective
citizens. The knowledge acquired can equip the children to understand and solve
problems of life. Good character will make children acceptable in the society
and grow in the nurture and fear of God, enjoying interpersonal relation with
fellow men wherever they find themselves (Denga and akuto 2004). Parents, the
community and nation at large expect their offspring to benefit from a positive
change in behavior as a result of their exposure to the individual learner but
to the society in which such an individual lives and operates. Learning in
individual is a complex phenomenon that depends on a multitude of factors such
as the teacher, the learner, the institutional environment among others. For
learning to take place effectively, there has to be an interaction among the
various factors
need for investigation becomes imperative since it will go a long way in
ameliorating those problems.
1.2     Statement of the Problem
Government commitment to education is noted from sessional paper no. 1 of 2005
which guarantees every learner the right to quality and relevant education. The
government has invested in education especially in public primary schools
through the introduction of Free primary Education (EPE). The country’s
provision of Free Primary Education is an effort by the government to increase
access and retention of pupils in schools. The development of Educaiton Sector Support
Programs is based on the rationale of the overall policy goal of achieving
Education for All (EFA) and the Governments commitment to the attainment of
Millennium Development Goals (MDG) as stipulated in Basic Education Act of
2013. Despite efforts made by the government to ensure each child attends
school by providing free Primary Education, there are pupils who still fail to
attend school on a regular basis (AEO, Lower Nyokal Division, 2012). Effective
teaching-learning process may not be guaranteed when the rate of absenteeism,
repetition and dropouts is high in the division. If teaching learning process
is not improved in Lower Nyokal, then the division will lag behind both in
social and economic development in the district. Anyango (2012) found that
teachers’ attitudes, adequacy of teaching learning resources and girls attitude
towards education led to poor performance among girls in Lower Nyokal division.
Opudo (2012) found that head teachers style of management influence the
performance of 6 pupils in Homa-Bay district. However, no study the school
envrionmetn can influence the teaching-learning process. the researcher
intended to find out if there is a relationship 
between school environmental factors and the teaching learning process
and make recommendations on how to improve them to ensure quality standards are
1.3     Significance of the Study
study will help to sensitize the education administrator to appreciate the need
to make available necessary materials, example chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual
materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of economics if they not
study will help to direct the economics teacher’s attention to the needs for
them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the
above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a
great significance because it is going to provide information and evaluation of
their plans.
will be useful to learners, for through this they will be able to identify he
factors influencing the proper learning economics this study will help to
produce sound economics students that will function very well in economy such
a.       Know
how to use scare productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed
ends and be able to apply the principle of economics               
 b.      The product of economics should be able to
pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.
work will serve as a serve as a source of encouragement to students and
teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the finding of this study
would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on
this issue.
Also, the study would throw more light
into the causal relationships among the students, and the school environment –
related variable under investigation and performance of students in economics.
The outcome of the stud is therefore expected to stimulate the stakeholders to
improve upon the isolated variables which have been found to have direct causal
relationships with students performance in financial, with a view to enhancing
student performance in the economics subject.
1.4     Objective of the Study
main purpose of this study is to identify environmental factors influencing
learning of economics in Ido/Osi Local Government of Ekiti State.
The study will specifically to
1.       The
extent to which instructional materials are available and why students perform
poorly in external examination.
2.       The
difficulties students encounter in the study of economics subjects.     
3.       The
educational qualification of economics teachers in Ido/Osi Local Government
Ekiti State.
3.       The
difficulty students encounter in the study of economics subject
4.       The
extent to which other related subjects influence their learning process as a
1.5     Research Questions
following research questions guided this research work.
1.       To
what extent are instructional materials available for economics?
2.       What
is the problem encounter by students of economics?
3.       What
is the educational qualification of economics teachers in Ido/Osi Local
Government Area in Ekiti State?
4.       To
what extent do related subjects influence learning of economics as a subject?
1.6     Delimitation of the Study
main aim of the study is to examine the environmental factors influence
learning of economics in Ido/Osi Local Government Area in Ekiti State, since
most secondary school in the local government in Nigeria faces similar problems
in terms of educational structure, the scope of study in respect of the
educational sector may be reduced to the minimum.
due to time factors, the study is limited to the local government and secondary
school in Ido/Osi Local Government Area in Ekiti State. 


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