EFFECTS OF SENA TORA LEAVE EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY.

EFFECTS OF SENA
TORA
LEAVE EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
       Many of the developing countries
including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its
main source of health care. This traditional medicine is normally gotten from
plant origin [Rehan Ahmad et al, 2008,
Stephen bent, 2008].Today nearly 88 percent of the global populations switch to
plant derived medicines as their first line of defence for maintaining health
and combating diseases [Kintzois et al,2006].
Presently there are about 60 types of medicinal plants that have been
recognised in primary health care and are classified according to their
pharmacological actions such as peptic ulcers, anti flatulence, laxative, anti
diarrhoea and anti hepatic[Viomolos et al,2003].
However in future the discovery of novel therapeutic agents will be only
dependent on plant origin [Perulmalsamy et
al
, 1999].
        Senna tora is an example of traditional medicine with
pharmacological actions as anticholesterolemic,antispasmodic,carninitative, emolliants,
ophthalmic and purgative [Polunin and Stanton,1984,Yeung,1985,Manandhar, 2002].
It can be cardiotonic, antiperiodic, anthelminitic and expectorant  and can also be used in treating  cogh,leprosy ,ring worm
,colic,flatulence,constipation and other disorders[Nature serve,2007]. Senna tora formally regarded as cassia
tora is capable of suppressing  the
production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory agonists such as cytokines,
histamine, kinin and free radical.manila,1998 buttressed his observations
confirming its use in the treatment of constipation, edema and liver protection
in Korea.
        Liver, the largest
internal organ of the human body performs more than five hundred functions, all
of which are very vital to life. The liver can regenerate or grow back cells
that have been destroyed by short term injury or disease, but if the liver is
damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo irreversible
changes which permanently interferes with its function.
     Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic substance
that interrupts the liver and its functions. This is to say that it damages the
liver when ingested.CCL4 is stable in the presence of air and light,
it is also inflammable. Despite its toxic effect on the liver, it is useful as
grain fumigant ,pesticide etc. Equilibrium of the body fluids and secretions
are altered as a result of carbon tetrachloride. For instance lipid metabolism,
cholesterol metabolism and 
biotransformation  functions of
the liver are terminated or altered in the presence of CCL4.Thus
carbon tetrachloride is lethal. The liver produces some enzyme such as
aspartate amino transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate
dehydrogenase,gamma glutamyl transsferase etc which catalyses the biochemical
activities of  the body, and on the
attack of CCL4 to the liver ,these enzymes will not be produced.
      Free radicals are highly reactive
compounds with uneven number of electrons in their outermost orbit. This can
react with cellular compounds like unsaturated fatty acids and can generate new
free radicals which result in irreversible biochemical injury like membrane
damage, apotosis and cell necrosis. Antioxidants scavenge  free radicals 
and stop the subsequent reactions hence protecting the macromolecules
and cellular environment from toxicity and degeneration [Hong B.O. Shao et al, 2008].The oxygen consumption
inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of series of reactive oxygen
species [ROS].The ROS are molecules such as superoxide anion radicals and
hydroxyl radicals[OH]. ROS may be very damaging 
attacking  the lipids of cell
membrane and DNA mutation which may

further propagate the propagation of many
diseases[Valontao et al 2002,Gulcin et al 2003]. Reactive oxygen  species are continuously  produced during normal Physiological  events 
and are removed by antioxidants defence mechanism [Buyukokuroglu et al,2001]. Many results have shown
that some of the cassia species have acquired antimicrobial substances and
antioxidant activities.

1.1     AIMS OF THE
RESEARCH
The aim of this research is to find out hepatoproductive
effects of sena tora leave extract on
carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity.

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