EFFECTS OF SELECTED SCHOOL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI, EKITI STATE

EFFECTS OF SELECTED SCHOOL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI, EKITI STATE
ABSTRACT
This research studied the effects of
selected school variables on students’ academic performance in Biology in some
selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.  Survey design of the descriptive research was
used to elicit information on the research topic.  Three hundred students from five selected
secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti were used as sample.  Therefore, sixty (60) respondents were
selected from each school using multi – stage random sampling technique.  The researcher designed self structure
questionnaire for the study used for the research variables.  The reliability of the instrument was
established using test – re – test method. 
Reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained.  Data collected from section ‘A’ of the
instrument was analysed descriptive statistics frequency counts and percentage
while chi – square (x2) was used for the testing all hypotheses at
0.05 level of significance.  This study
showed that methods of teaching, teachers qualifications and school environment
are the factors that influence the students academic performance in Biology in
selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.  Recommendations were made that appropriate
teaching methods that will suit the stated objective should be applied and
teachers should be exposed to short term course such as seminars and workshop
to enhance their knowledge about their area of specialization, recommendations
were made on how to improve the academic performance of students in secondary
schools.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                   
CERTIFICATION                                                                       
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                        
DEDICATION                                                                                 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                             
ABSTRACT                                                                                    
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                          
LIST OF FIGURES                                                                         
LIST OF TABLE                                                                      
LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                           
CHAPTER I:       INTRODUCTION
Background of the study                                                                           
Statement of the Problem                                                                          
Purpose of the study                                                                        
Significance of the study                                                                        
Scope of the study                                                                                     
Research questions                                                                          
Research Hypotheses                                                                       
Assumptions of the study                                                                      
Definition of Terms                                                                          
CHAPTER II:     REVIEW OF LITERATURE                              
Conceptual framework                                                                    
Method of teaching                                                                         
Teachers’ qualification                                                                     
School environment                                                                          
Theoretical framework                                                                     
Review of related empherical studies                                                  
CHAPTER III:    METHODOLOGY
Research design                                                                             
Area of the study                                                                       
Population of the study                                                                  
Sample and sampling techniques                                                     
Instrument for data collection                                                          
Validation of the instrument                                                           
Reliability of the instrument                                                            
Administration of the instrument                                                     
Data analysis technique(s)                                                              
CHAPTER IV:    PRESENTATION
AND INTERPRETATION
OF
RESULTS                                                                                  
CHAPTER V:     DISCUSSION
OF RESULTS,
SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS      
Discussion of results                                                                        
Summary of the study                                                                     
Conclusions                                                                                  
Implications of the findings                                                           
Recommendations                                                                                    
Limitations of the study                                                                 
Suggestions for further studies                                                                  
REFERENCES                                                                               
APPENDICES                                                                                



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:               Conceptual framework on students academic performance
Figure 2:               Theoretical framework on students academic
performance.



LIST OF TABLES
Sample and sampling techniques
Table 1: Descriptive analyses on sex
difference
Table 2: Descriptive analyses on
qualification
Table 3: Descriptive analyses on
experiences
Table 4: Chi – square statistics on
method of teaching
Table 5: Chi – square statistics on
teachers qualification
Table 6: Chi – square statistics on
school environment



LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix
A:                  Questionnaire on
Effects of selected school variables on students academic performance in
Biology in some selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Appendix
B:                  Reliability statistics
using person’s product movement correlation (PPMC)
Appendix
C:                  Letter of introduction
to collect data/information to carry out experiment for the study
Appendix
D:                  List of schools used
for the study.



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The quality of education of a nation
could be determined by the quality of his/her teachers.  The most important factor in improving
student’s achievement in Biology is by employing seasonal qualified teachers in
all schools.
Abe and Adu (2013), Okuruwa (1999)
found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement
in students’ performance.
Specifically, the measurement of
teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of student’s achievement
in science and Biology.  It is further
reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and
degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated
with students learning outcomes in science and Biology, this report was in line
with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013)
opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a
number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a
registered teacher in primary or secondary schools.  Such qualification include, but are not
limited to the postgraduate certificate in Education (PGDE).  The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE),
Bachelor of Education (B.ED) and Nigeria Certificate in Education
(NCE).
In Ekiti State,
teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally
qualified are engaged to carryout instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince
Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer
to those who are academic training as a result of enrolment into educational
institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.SC, B.A and so on, while
professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that
gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different
from the general education Edu and Kalu (2012).
They hold degrees like, B.ED,
B.SC.ED, B.A.ED and M.ED and so on.  On
the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship
between teacher educational qualification and student’s academic achievement.
For instance, Igwe (1990)
investigated the influence of teachers’ qualification on academic performance
of students in science subjects in Kano
State.  The researcher found so significant
relationship between teacher’s qualification and student’s performance.  While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and
Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to
the variance with student’s cognitive achievement in Biology.  Coonery (1990) opined that students do not
understand Biology when it is taught by an ineffective teacher.  Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by
saying that teacher’s quality is the most important among other critical
factors like quality curricula, class size and learning situation.  George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students
in Biology to teacher’s qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as
administrative factors.  In teaching
Biology, Adesina (1982) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of
holders of minimum of B.SC in Biology, many other teachers would be confronted
with problem of teaching secondary school Biology syllabus effectively.
Hence Lussa (1985) argued that no one
gives what he/she does not possesses.  He
further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do no have
well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired
goals.
In view of this, a teacher is someone
who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area
as well as in professional education: such professionally qualified teachers
may according to the federal ministry of education (2004) fall into a number of
academic categories. Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who
under went and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution
or in a planned programmed of training. 
Among such training may include principles and practice of education as
well as be exposed to an observed period of intership either after or as part
of the period of training people who fall within this category should under
normal circumstance be able to fulfill the various functions expected of
teacher within and outside the four walls of the classroom.
Furrugia (1987) perceived a
professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the
theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief
that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and
economic development of his/her country. 
Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand student’s abilities
to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she
lives.  He/she should be able to assist
students to reach their full intellectual and social potentials.
According to Adieze (1986) non
qualified and non – professional teachers in teaching profession are killing
the profession because they are not really teachers.  He regarded them as “bird” of passage that
create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect
in the profession they are originally trained for.  T he comparison of student’s scores in
biology achievement test based on teacher’s qualifications becomes necessary in
order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect teaching
methods has any significant effect/influence on student’s performance in
biology or not.
The differential scholastic
achievement of students in Nigeria
has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to be
educators, government and parents.  This
is so because of the great importance that education has on the national
development of the country.  All over the
country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education
in Nigeria.  Adebule (2004), parents and government are in
total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the
desired divided.
Poor academic performance is a
performance that is adjudged by the examine/testee and some others significant
as falling below an expected standard poor academic performance has been
observed in school subject’s especially biology among secondary students.  Academic failure is not only frustrating to
the students and parents, its effect are equally grave on the society in terms
of death of man power.  In all spheres of
the economy and politics.  Education at
secondary school levy is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation toward
higher knowledge in tertiary institutions.
It is an investment as well as an
instrument that can be achieve a more rapid economic, social and political,
technology, scientific and cultural development in the country.
The national policy on education
(2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national
development that fosters the worth and development of the society and equally
of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real
marginal disabilities.
The role of secondary education is to
lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at
this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels.
However, different people at
different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school
to students because of their low retention parental factors, association with
wrong peers, low achievement motivation and the likes Aremu and Sokan (2013);
Aremu and Oluwole (2001); (2000).
Falling level of academic achievement
is attributable to teacher’s non – use of verbal reinforcement strategy, others
found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their
poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about
students performance that could damage their ago, poor method of teaching and
the likes affect pupil’s academic performance.
Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning of biology
depends to a large extent on teachers’ own knowledge of the content and ability
to adequately deliver the instruction to the students.
However, a lot of variables may
inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of
the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teacher’s
qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among
others.  While the parent study sought to
determine the effect of teacher’s qualification on secondary school student’s
performance in biology.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to find
out how the selected school variables can be used as predictors of students
academic performance in Biology in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
The research work will be carried out
in other to critically examine the following:
i.                  
To
find out whether methods of teaching has an effects on academic performance of
the students.
ii.                
To
find out whether teachers qualification has an effects on academic performance
of the students.
iii.             
To
find out whether school environment causes poor academic performance of the
students.
Significance of the study
          The
study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient
data for useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare
of students.
The findings of this study will also
generate and provide data on effects of school variables on student’s academic
performance.
Scope of the study
This study will look into the effects
of selected school variables on student’s Academic Performance in Biology in
Ikere local government area of Ekiti
State.
The study will cover all secondary
schools in Ikere Ekiti, in Ekiti
State.  The research will involve dependent variable
of students academic performance in Biology and independent variable of method
of teaching, teachers qualification and school environment.
The research will involve three (3)
research assistant who will be trained by the researcher will be made use
of.  The research instrument will be self
– structured questionnaire and the analysis of the data will be done by using
descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages of analyse the
demographic data while inferential statistics of chi – square (x2)
will be used to test the hypotheses at P0.05 level of significance.
Research Questions
Specifically, this study therefore
attempts to find answers to these research questions;
1)               
Does
method of teaching have an effects on academic performance of the students.
2)               
Does
teachers qualification have an effects on academic performance of the students.
3)               
Does
school environment causes poor academic performance of the students.
Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be
tested tested at P = 0.05 level of significance in this study:
1)               
Teaching
method will not significantly have an effect on the academic performance of the
student.
2)               
Teachers
qualification will not significantly have an effect on academic performance of
the student.
3)               
School
environment will not significantly causes poor academic performance of the
student.
Assumption of the study
          The
researcher assumes that the factors influencing the teachers qualification as
determinant of students performance in Biology of secondary school students in
Ikere local government area of Ekiti
State have not been
included in the literature review by the previous researchers.
Researchers have been considered
generally on teachers qualification as a determinant of student performance in
Biology.
Definition of Terms
1)               
Methodology: This is the means or strategies
employed by teachers in attempt to impact knowledge to the learners.
2)               
Teacher: Teacher is a person that impact
knowledge on a student or a person whose job is teaching.
3)               
Poor academic performance: Is a performance that is adjudged
by the examiner/tested and some other significant as falling below an expected
standard.
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