Scholars have argued that rural outward migration may generate labour shortage and in turn lead to low farm produce and consequently a decline of the rural economy leading to persistent poverty and food insecurity. Thisstudyexamined the ‘Effects of Rural Outward Migration on Agricultural Activities in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.‟ Systematic sampling technique was used to select six wards from the eleven wards that made up the study area. Questionnaire was administered among 400 randomly selected household heads. The descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data into frequency counts, averages and percentages. Also, inferential statistics such as Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to test the hypotheses. The Mann Whitney test for their income level shows that except for those who engage in trading (.000), there is no significant difference in other sources of income between households whose members had migrated and those that did not. It was reported that majority (68.4%) of the migrantsmigrated before the farming season to other northern states mainly to search for better jobs, education and to engage in trading. The Kruskal Wallis test shows a significant variation (0.001) in the number of malesand femalesthat have migrated from the various wards before and during farming periods, and there are significant variation among the various wards as to the number that migrated. Out-migration from the study area were mostly to places within Kaduna and other northern states. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The effects of outward migration include loss of friends with a mean score (4.50),shortage of labour (4.45) and family break-up (4.22) respectively.
On the basis of the findings, the study recommended that to stem the incidence of outward migration, government should establish skill acquisition centres and agricultural processing industries to provide jobs opportunities and the skills needed to be self-employed for the potential migrants. Also, empower farmers with underground water lifting machines as this will revive the declining dry season farming.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Theoretical Issues
2.2 Literature Review
2.2.1 Types of Migration 18
2.2.3 The Effects of Rural Out-Migration on Migrants’ Households
2.2.4 The Effects of Rural Out-Migration on Non-Migrants’ Households
2.2.5 Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Agriculture and Rural Employment
2.2.6 Rural-Urban Migration in Nigeria
2.2.7 Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Education and Health Status of
CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 The Study Area
3.1.1 Location and Size
3.1.2 Population and Culture
3.1.3 Socio-economic Activities
3.1.4 Infrastructural Facilities
3.2.1 Reconnaissance Survey
3.2.2 Types of Data Used
3.2.3 Sources of Data
220.127.116.11 Primary Sources
3.2.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.2.5 Data Analyses
3.3 Challenges Encountered in the Field
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents
4.1.1 Sex, Age and Marital Status of Respondents
4.1.2 Household Size, Educational Qualification and Occupation of Respondents
4.1.3 Income Level
4.1.4 Farm Labour
4.1.5 Number of Out-migrants
4.1.6 Sex, Season and Place of Out-migration
4.2 Temporal Variation in Sex and Season of Out-migrants
4.3 Spatial Variation in Place of Out-migrants
4.4 Causes for Migration
4.4.1 Nature,Amount and the Effects of Assistance in Migrants‟ Household
4.5 Effects of Out-migration on Migrants’ Families
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of the Findings
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Sampling of Respondents 40
Table 4.1 Sex, Age and Marital Status of Respondents 43
Table 4.2Household Size, Educational Qualification and Occupation of Respondents 45
Table 4.3 Hypothesis Result for Income of Respondents 52
Table 4.4 Sources of Farm Labour by Respondents 53
Table 4.5 Sex, Season and Place of Out-migrants 55
Table 4.6 Temporal Variation in Sex and Season of Out-migrants 56
Table 4.7 Spatial Variation in Place of Out-migrants 58
Table 4.8 Causes for Migration in Migrants’ Households 60
Table 4.9 Nature, Amount and the Effects of Assistance in Migrants‟Household 62
Table 4.10 Effects to Families with Out-migrants 64
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Giwa Local Government Area Showing the Districts 33
Figure 4.1 Distribution of Respondents by Income from Farming 47
Figure 4.2Distribution of Respondents Trading Income Per month48
Figure 4.3 Distribution of Respondents Livestock Rearing Income Per Month 49
Figure 4.4 Distribution of Respondents Artisan Income Per Month 50
Figure 4.5 Distribution of Respondents Civil Service Income Per Month 51
Figure 4.6 Distribution of Number of Wards with Migrants54
Figure 4.7 Spatial Variation in Towns/Communities of Out-Migrants 59
1.7 Background to the Study
Colonialism exposed Nigerians to the international market by the exportation of cash crops, which resulted to the creation of administrative offices in certain areas and consequently necessitated investment in socio-economic amenities within these areas. This stimulated the quest for paid employment and migration of workforce into these areas and therefore prompted the commencement of rural-urban migration into new cities like Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Enugu, Jos and Kaduna because unskilled labour were required for menial jobs in the urban centres of colonial administration. Thus, the urban centres became more appealing to young people since superior employment and other socio-economic conveniences resided there. The rural areas were thus abandoned by the youths, leaving the ageing men, women and children to labour on the farms.
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the rural countryside to the burgeoning cities due to poverty manifested in the inadequacy of incomes and lack of gainful employment and services. People generally tend to be pulled to the areas of prosperity. Migration, whether internal or international, has become an important livelihood strategy among rural household in most developing countries. This is because it provides migrant households with remittances that are uncorrelated with agricultural income. Migrants are usually concerned with the benefits they hope to gain and give less thought to the problems that will incur at their destination. Rural out-migration may impact more on those left behind.
Migration is also selective in terms of age, sex, level of education and marital status and
males migrate more than their female counterparts as they are always the bread winners. Migration mainly concerns young adults who have a positive net expected return on migration due to their longer remaining life expectancy. On the other hand, migration could also be a strategy to diversify income sources and to coping with the risks associated with nature and man-made. This makes families to encourage younger members to migrate, purposely to have higher earnings potential and also the likelihood to remit money to members of the family at home.
There are two major ways to differentiate a rural area from an urban area. An area can be refered to as rural or urban based on its demographic features (population density and characteristics) or economic activities (whether primary or secondary and tertiary activities). In economic terms, a rural area may be defined as an area involved mainly in primary activities or whose economic activities are predominantly agricultural in nature with limited or poor social and infrastructural facilities while an urban area on the other hand is involve in secondary and tertiary activities or non-agricultural in nature with good social and infrastructural facilities.
Giwa Local Government Area (LGA) located on the plains of northern part of Kaduna State and is one of the 23 LGAs in the State. Historically, it was created out of Igabi LGA and was a frontier region between the ancient emirates of Katsina and Zaria. Giwa LGA is purely agrarian in nature with agriculture as the major source of livelihood. It is characterized by inadequate and uneven distribution of both social and infrastructural facilities (like hospitals, schools, banks and so on) as these few facilities are concentrated in just two wards; Giwa (the local government headquarters) and Shika. This has directly and indirectly led to out-migration of people from the local government.
In Nigeria, agriculture is the mainstay of the rural areas, yet the rural area is most vulnerable to poverty with greater proportion of their population moving out on annual basis. Rural-urban migration is the most important form of internal migration in most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. The movement poses some problems in the rural as well as in the urban center. This arises mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural areas thus leaving only the children and aged members to constitute the labour force of the rural area. On the other hand, experience in developing countries have shown that the rate of rural-urban migration has ceaselessly outweighed the rate of job creation and having an overweight on the social and infrastructural amenities available in the urban areas.
Many developing countries and their policies have a negative view on rural-urban migration because it is perceived that poverty forces the poor people to migrate from their villages, this migration in turn, generates higher pressure on the cities which in the end causes increased poverty both in the rural and the urban areas. This has led many developing countries to make policies with goals to re-direct the spatial distribution of the population and lower the flow of migrants to the bigger cities in the country. It is estimated that 77% of all the countries in Africa have these kind of policies (United Nations (UN), 2012). The need to therefore study and examine the effects of rural-urban migration on rural areas cannot be over emphasized.
1.2 Statementofthe Research Problem
Despite the efforts of the Nigerian government towards sustaining the economy of rural people through the introduction of a number of agricultural programmes such as; Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) in 1976, River Basin and Rural Development Authority (R.B.R.D.A.) in 1976, the Green Revolution (GR) in 1980, Fadama (i, ii and iii) in 1990, 2006 and 2008, development programmes among others, rural people still see it necessary to migrate to the urban cities, and
by extension, migration according to the United Nations (2013) report, despite the lack of reliable data on internal migrants, it is estimated that 40% of the migrants originated from the rural areas and many of them are youth with high propensity to migrate.
Migration had adverse effect on the livelihood of the people left behind in the rural areas such as the aged women and very young people. Aromolaran (2013) reported that in most rural areas in Nigeria, the potential labour force that could have contributed to the improvement of the rural economy has moved into the cities in search of better standard of living and benefits they presumed could exist in urban centres. According to Mini (2000), it has resulted in the speedy decline of the rural economy and led to persistent poverty and food insecurity.
A study conducted by Aworemi, Abdul-Azeez and Opoola (2011) in Lagos State, Nigeria, showed that rural-urban migration is a double-edged problem affecting the rural community as well as the urban destinations. They contend that rural community is affected because the youths and adults that are supposed to remain in the community and contribute to the development of agriculture in particular and the community in general leave the rural areas for other destinations. Taylor, Rozelle, and De Brauw (2003) noted that the adverse effect of loss of labour may be high since migrants tend to be younger and better educated than the average rural labourer.
However, some scholars have argued that out-migration has positive effects on agriculture. For instance, Taylor, Rozelle and De Brauw (2003) have argued that loss in yield due to the reduction in available labour may be compensated for(partially) by remittances from the migrant(s), which are used to purchase additional inputs or hire labour. It is possible that, initially the migrants cannot send remittances until they are well settled. De Brauw and Rozelle
(2003) also provided evidence that the remittances sent home by migrants compensate for this lost-labour, thus contributing to household incomes directly by stimulating crop production.
In a nut shell, this apparent contradiction in the literature can be partly resolved by the understanding that migration impacts are not the same for different areas across time and space. There are indications that the initial effect of migration on agricultural productivity might indeed have been negative, because of inadequate family labour but may subsequently improve if remittances flows from migrants are invested in agriculture. After reviewing a number of cases in Asia, Deshingkar (2004) concluded that, loss of labour through migration may or may not reduce agricultural production, remittance may or may not increase access to assets by alleviating credit constraint: this in turn may or may not increase agricultural production and household incomes.
Gimba and Kumshe (2011) examined the causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Maiduguri metropolis of Borno State using simple percentages. A total of 150 respondents were involved in the study. The results revealed that the major causes of rural-urban migration are; the search for better wages, education, political and social instability, employment and business opportunities. The results also revealed that rural-urban migration brings pressure on urban housing and the environment because as migrants arrive from rural areas, most of them live on the streets and make shift sub-standard accommodation before establishing themselves. They further noted that the high rate of population growth in the urban centres also lessens the quality of life because it destroys resources such as water and forests needed for sustenance. The study therefore recommended that the government should provide social amenities in the rural areas and also provide jobs for the citizens in the rural areas.
Aworemi, Abdul-azeez and Opoola (2011) researched on the factors influencing rural-urban migration in some selected LGAs in Lagos State using logistic regression model.
Interviews were used to elicit information from the respondents in the study area. A total of 400 respondents were interviewed. Data analysis revealed that among the variables identified to be influencing rural-urban migration are; unemployment, education, inadequate social amenities and health reasons. They recommended that to stem down the rate of rural-urban migration, basic amenities such as pipe borne water, electricity, recreational facilities, good educational facilities and qualified teachers should be provided in the rural areas.
Isaac and Raqib (2013) undertook a study on rural-urban migration and rural community development in Kpongu community of upper west region of Ghana. A total of 200 respondents were selected to represent key informants, focus group participants and interviewees to gather data from returned migrants and their families in order to find out the reasons for migration, and what needs to be done to prevent migration from the community. The study revealed that most of the returned migrants migrated to the cities to find jobs. According to the authors, the major effective way to reduce out-migration from the community may be the provision of a vocational training centre to hold back the youth who often migrate to other areas to learn carpentry, hair dressing and dress making that could make them self-employed and independent.
Omonigho and Olaniyan (2013) assessed the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Ijebu Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria using descriptive statistics. A total of 144 questionnaires were administered to household heads of migrants‟ families.They reported that majority of migrants in the study area migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search of employment, to join relatives and to get married. Their findings also revealed that rural-urban migration has pulled a lot of youths to the urban areas. The authors recommended concerted government policy aimed at closing the lacuna between wage and other socio-economic differentials between the rural and urban areas,
government‟s support in the development and funding of small and medium scale rural enterprises and agriculture.
Oyakhilomen (2014) examined gender influence on the income of maize farmers in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State. According to the author, women have always played an important role in agriculture, undertaking a wide range of activities relating to food production, processing and marketing. Beyond the farm, women play a key role in land and water management in all developing countries. Also, women are most often the collectors of water, firewood and fodder. They have good knowledge on the medicinal use of plants, they have been in the forefront of soil conservation programmes and it is women who perform most of the household labour devoted to animals. As migration to the cities of the developing world gathers speed, women carry with them these rural skills and are responsible for the growth of urban and peri-urban agriculture, which is now recognized as being vital to food security in cities.
There is no consensus on the effects of rural out-migration on those left behind. From the foregoing, and to the best knowledge of the researcher, it can be deduced that much has not been done to assess the effect of rural-urban migration on socio-economic activities especially in Giwa LGA. This is therefore the gap in knowledge which this study intends to fill and in order to achieve this, the study intends to provide answers to the following:
i. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the migrants’ and non-migrants’ families in Giwa LGA?
ii. What is the temporal variation of rural outward migration in the study area?
iii. What is the spatial variation of rural outward migration in the study area?
iv. What are the causes for rural outward migration in the study area?
v. What are the effects of rural outward migration on socio-economic activities of households left behind?
1.3 Aimand Objectivesofthe Study
The aim of this study is to assess the effects of rural outward migration on agricultural activities in Giwa LGA, of Kaduna State, Nigeria. This would be achieved through the following objectives which are to:
i Examine the socio-economic characteristics of the migrants’ and non-migrants’ families in Giwa LGA.
ii. Determine the temporal variation of rural outward migration in the study area.
iii Examine the spatial variation of rural outward migration in the study area.
iv Examine the causes of rural outward migration in the study area.
v Examine the effects of rural outward migration on socio-economic activities on households left behind.
i There are two competing schools of thoughts with regards to the effects of rural-urban migration on non-migrants. While scholars like Analogo, Sakyi-dauson, Boateng and Mahama (2014) posited that rural out-migration may result in drastic decrease in labour force, giving rise to reduced food production and consequently reduced household income, scholars like De Brauw et. al. insisted that the remittances sent home by migrants compensate for this lost labour by increasing household income. The bases for this hypothesis therefore is to find out if these remittances actually increase the income of the families with migrants when compared to families without migrants.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the income of households whose members have migrated compared to those who did not.
ii Studies have shown that migration is selective in terms of sex and that males migrate more than females. For example Agesa and Agesa (1999) posited that ‘although men have tended to dominate migration flows, women are becoming an increasing part of labour migration streams in Nigeria and other African societies.’ The bases for this hypothesis is to confirm whether or not males actually migrate more than their female counterparts.
Ho: There is no significant difference between the males and the females that migrated at different seasons from the various wards in the study area.
iii According to Adepoju (1979), ‘the prevailing migration pattern in Nigeria is rural-urban which makes population growth in major Nigerian cities like Lagos, Ibadan, Kano and Port Harcourt among others to be very alarming on annual basis. The bases for this hypothesis is to find out the places with high inflow of migrants and whether or not there is a significant variation among the various wards that migrate to such places.
Ho: There is no significant difference among the migrants that migrated to different places from the various wards in the study area.
1.5 Significanceofthe Study
Rural-urban migration has been a challenging issue for policy makers and (or) governments especially in developing countries. Out-migration from rural areas may result in drastic decrease in the labour force which in turn reduces total cropped area and quality of workforce thus giving rise to reduced food production and reduced household income leading to food insecurity (Analogo, Sakyi-dawson, Boateng and Mahama, 2014). On the contrary, De Haas (2001)
contended that, in the long run, and after an adjustment process, this agricultural decline has often been reversed through agricultural investments made possible by the inflow of remittances. It is expected that the findings from the study will be of immense importance to educational planners, policy makers and researchers/students who are interested in the effect of rural-urban migration on socio-economic activities as it will reveal the causes and effects of rural-urban migration on socio-economic activities in the study area.It will also be an addition to general works on related topics, thus, an addition to knowledge and finally, it will suggest ways of arresting or curtailing out migration from rural areas if it is established that it has some negative effects.
1.6 Scopeofthe Study
The study is concerned with the effects of rural outward migration on socio-economic activities in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. It covers six (6) wards namely; Dan Mahawayi, Gangara, Idasu, Kakangi, Yakawada and Pan Hauya.The content scope of this study include the socio-economic activities prevalent in Giwa LGA, such as; major source of income, source of farm labour, highest educational qualification, temporal variation in sex and season of out-migrants, spatial variation in place of out-migrants and the effects of rural outward migration. The study covered families with and without migrants between 2014 and 2015.
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