EFFECTS OF PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
Background to the study
The classroom environment of a school is an embodiment of the physical, sociological, psychological and psychosocial conditions. The physical classroom environment has to do with the age of the classroom building, colour, level of available furniture, desks and seats, ventilation, lighting, roof, ceiling and floor Akubue, (2001). The sociological classroom environment or climate refers to the feeling, which the teachers and the learners are able to generate in making the classroom morale high or low Akubue, (2001). The psychological classroom environment refers to the level of the speed of teaching, cohesiveness, distractions, interests, motivations, anxieties, confusion and difficulty of the classroom learning activities Haertel and Walbeg, (2004).
The psycho-social classroom environment is a type of classroom that has to do with interactions in the classroom. These interactions involve: teacher and students’ interactions, students and students interactions, students and instructional material interaction, and students, instructional materials and teacher interaction Anyafulude, (2006). It also refers to the extents the students perceive their classroom environment and how they want it to look like. Hong, (2003). In Nigeria psycho-social classroom environment, it appears that there is suppression of students by some teachers who claim to know everything, thereby giving students little or no opportunity to air their views Nwabueze, (2004). The psycho-social environment that students work in is very important. According to Fagbamiye, (2004) successful psycho-social environment is more likely to be a calm place rather than chaotic, to be task oriented and have an orderly climate class. Fagbamiye continued by saying that in a geography classroom psycho-social environment, teacher/students interaction is very important.
According to Idowu, (2006), teacher/students interaction deals with interaction between the students and their teachers. The relationship may be positive or negative. This relationship depends on how effective both the teachers as well as the students are able to perform their roles in the relationship. According to the same source, it also deals with teachers’ perception of their students and students’ perception of their teachers. Some teachers perceive their students as been stubborn, older than their chronological ages, incapable of making decision, good for nothing, unfriendly, etc. Other teachers perceive their students as being worthwhile, tender, friendly, innovative, intelligent, helpful etc. When the teacher’s perception of his student is positive, it may result to good teacher/student interaction but when he perceives his student in the negative direction, it may result in the negative direction and results to rancour, anger, hatred and poor students/teacher relationship. According to Dewey, (2006) the poor student relationship may lead to poor achievement while good student/teacher relationship may lead to better achievement .
Another form of interaction in the classroom according to Mgboro and Omebe, (2005) is the students/students interactions. This form of interaction involves the peer group. The peer group is a group of individuals who are of approximately equal size, age and status with whom the child finds himself in the same class. This group fills great and growing need for the child, for with them, he learns to develop new feelings of adequacy and acceptance. So the peer group appears to be the second in importance to the teacher in the psychosocial classroom environment. The individual according to Onyehalu, (2004) relies on peers for social acceptances support and solidarity. When his/her peers accept the him, there is likely going to be a better achievement than when the student is rejected by his/her peers.
Teachers/students/instructional materials are another form of interaction psychosocial classroom environment. It is a means by which students/teachers interact with their instructional materials. , instructional materials are very important as they bring realities to what the teacher is teaching lesson. According to Fagbamiye, (2004), in a Geography psycho-social classroom-learning environment, the student and teacher interact with each other and use of variety of tools and information resources in their pursuit of learning activities. The nature of the classroom environment and psycho-social interactions may make a difference in how the students learn and achieve their goals .
The nature of psycho-social secondary schools classroom learning environment has been found to differ according to location Lawren, (2006). This difference due to location may lead to students’ different perception of their psychosocial classroom in rural and urban schools, and may or may not result to difference in students’ achievement in rural and urban schools. According to Murdock (2007) location influence social interaction. Classroom achievement cannot be divorced from the social fabric in which it is embedded. Wentzed (2006) continued by saying that a learner’s concept of his worthiness, competence and other academically related qualities are derived from interactions with others in the acaemic environment.
Statement of the Problem
Classroom achievement as explained earlier refers to school progress made by a student from one class to another. In measuring achievement, it is believed that students should go through the appropriate experience which will enable them to learn or gain the ability to achieve tasks to acquire certain skills in a deserved way.
Students’ achievement may not be improved unless there is provision for ideal psycho-social classroom environment . It is also not certain whether students in rural and urban schools perceive their classroom psych-osocial environment in a similar manner, and if the differences in their perception relates to their achievements.
Hence, the problem of this study stated as a question is, what is the relationship between student perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement in senior secondary school?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the Effects Of Psycho-Social Factors On Student Performance in selected secondary schools in ——–local government area.. Specifically, this study intends to find out:
- Determine the effect of psycho social factors as a determiant of students academic perfprmamnce
- Find out the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools
- Investigate if students interest influence their performance
- To find out if teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on the students academic performance
- To determine if school environment influence students performance
- Does phsyco social factors have effect on students academic performance?
- What are the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools?
- Does students interest influence their performance in the subject?
- Do teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on students academoic performance?
- Does school environment influence students performance?
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will provide information to the geography teachers and educators on the students’ perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement
The result will provide information to the government on the level of students’ perception and achievement in rural and urban schools, knowing this will help improve the psycho-social environment, by increasing educational conditions of such schools that will enhance students achievement in Nigeria
Both the study and its beef up literature on achievement and psycho-social environment may sensitize teacher taumers to help create a better interaction in the classroom.
The school administrator will not be left out. This work will help them in the sense that they will be able to guide their teachers in creating a better psycho-social environment.
The government, if aware of psycho-social environment can make a rule for examining bodies to monitor psycho-social environment. The work will also serve as a resource materials to researcher who may be interested in the area. Additionally, it will provide the frame work for other researchers to build on.
Findings of this study will help to increase the knowledge base of what is known already about psychosocial classroom environment and also guide the teachers in providing conducive learning atmosphere by arranging and organizing the classroom in a way that the students will like.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to SSII students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This is because, the researcher does not want to use people in external examination classes because they are preparing for their examination or beginners because they might not have gotten enough knowledge from SS 1. As such, the researcher considers it more appropriate to use SS 2 and the content scope is the psycho-social classroom environment of Ikere local government area of ekiti state.