The study focused on the impact of improvisation of teaching aids as the correlates of academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ado local government area of Ekiti State.  Research questions were raised to guide the study; questionnaires were structured to elicit information from teachers and pupils in five selected nursery and primary schools from the aforementioned local government area.  The data collected were analysed using the percentage.  It was discovered from the study that the use of instructional material in the teaching have positive effect on the pupils academic performance.  Also, instructional materials influenced the achievement, motivation and academic performance of pupils.  It was also discovered that poor method of improvising have a serious influenced on academic performance of pupils.  It was thus further recommended by the researcher that teacher should endeavour to improve on their method of teaching adequate making us of instructional materials in the lesson, stimulating the pupils’ interest towards accounting education.  Also education bodies should endeavour to provide funds to procure some the equipment needed for teaching and learning of in primary schools and monitoring of teaching activities in the class should be concern for all stake holders in education in order to curb poor teaching methods among orders.


TABLE OF CONTENT        S                                                    

Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Research Questions
Delimitation/Limitation of the Study
Definitions of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                    
The Concept of Instructional Materials
Method Use in Teaching/Learning process
The Role of the Teacher in Effective Teaching
Strategies for Effective Use in Instructional Materials
Challenges of Instructional Materials in Primary Schools
The Needs for Improvised Instructional Materials
Classes of Instructional Materials
Characteristics of Instructional Materials
Summary of the Literature Review
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                       
Research Design
Population for the Study
Sampling and Sample Technique
Research Instruments
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Procedure for the Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
Discussion of Findings                                                           

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION                               
Background of the Study
The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) in her National Policy of Education viewed education in Nigeria as an instrument “per excellence” and that which effects change and development both for the individual and for the nation.  The envisaged changed and development are to be brought about through carefully planned and well implemented curriculum at all levels, especially the primary school which is the bedrock of other levels of education.  Primary education amongst other things, prepares the child for life outside the classroom.  It develops the child’s latent skills and equally provides basic skills for literacy and numeracy.  Primary school education is widely accepted as the first level of education system where formal education begins.  It is seen as very important because it ensures that children acquire basic literacy skills and that they are taught to think critically.  It is available to all citizens in every country of the world.  This is the reason for the huge investment and involvement of governments of all countries of the world in its administration and processes.  In Nigeria, primary education is recognized as the education given to children starting from the age of 6 years to 11 years plus.  It runs for a period of six years, and its objectives include developing basic literacy, numeracy, communication skills, adaptation to changing environment and transmission of the culture of the people to younger generations.  It should be noted that to fully realize the goals and objectives of this important level of education, efforts and resources must be pulled together by all concerned stakeholders who include government, teachers, school management and concerned organizations as well as parents especially.  It is for this reason that the Federal Republic of Nigeria stated in National Policy on Education (2004) that the involvement of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals, parents inclusive is welcomed.
Primary education emphasizes basic education for the average Nigerian child of school age.  There is no gain saying that basic education is crucial to overall development of any nation.  It is not just an instrument for enhancing the life of individuals, it lays the foundation for transforming the social, political and economic life of any nation.  The country’s greatest desire and aspiration towards the eradication of illiteracy, promotion of functional education, reduction of poverty and unemployment, attainment of an enlightened economically, viable democratic society calls for adequate educational system for their realization (FRN, 2004).
Improvisation are those things that enables pupils’ to have mental picture of what has been taught and to retain the message in their memory for a very long time e.g radio, television, chart, mirco-projectors, still pictures, specimen etc.  It can be referred to as those things that the classroom teacher uses to impact knowledge to pupils in the classroom in order to achieve his objectives.
According to Ogunmola (2002) cited that improvisation are those visual or audio visual materials which facilities the assimilation of organization.  In fact, for effective teaching and learning to take place, importance of improvisation can exist without adequate use of relevant equipment, examples of such equipment are integrated, bar chart, still pictures, monitor, keyboard, typewriter, mouse, scanner, printer, duplicating machine etc.   These science equipment are indispensable to a good teachers.
Instructional materials are all the things the primary school teachers uses to aid the learners in their learning process, they are the means used to bring about effective and learning.  Obara and Okoh (2005) regard instructional strategies and materials as ‘all the things the teacher utilizes to interactively enhance motivate and facilitate teaching and learning in an attempt to ensuring the achievement of a set objectives”.  The impacts of instructional materials and strategies depend upon the manner and degree to which they meet the needs of the teacher and students.  Instructional strategies and materials are selected based on the principles of provision of accurate materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the interest, abilities and maturity levels of students, primary school teachers should be encouraged in every way to use instructional strategies as it makes learning more concrete and meaningful (Buseri and Dorgu, 2011).
Teaching brings about understanding, it involves a teacher, a learner and subject matter and teaching materials.  Therefore to bring about learning, the teacher engages in certain activities such as talking, demonstration, and give instruction etc; all these are the various strategies to bring about learning (Adediran, 2014).  Teachers need to use different instructional strategies to ensure students center method in the classroom for creativity, innovative and critical thinking purpose in students.  Classroom teaching is likely to be more effective when it is informed strategies be reflected in classroom practice.  In recent times, emerging research findings seem to show that oriented instructional strategies are becoming increasingly popular in the teaching of subjects in the primary school level of education in Nigeria (Osakwe, 2009).
These instructional strategies involve resolution of problems active practice participations of learners in the teaching process and emphasis on process rather than products of learning.  Some of these strategies and approaches according to Osakwe (2009) are categorized under conventional and innovative appraises, instructional strategies which  are classified under conventional are mostly those routine, well-knowing ones which teachers use predominantly.  They are usually teacher centered with little or no activities for pupils.  These include teaching method like lecture, story – telling, recitation, etc. on the other hand, the innovative  strategies include those ones that are much more recent which are predominantly learner – centered.  These include questioning, inquiry/problem solving, role play and dramatization (Adediran , 2014).
Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning.  Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners.  Oluwagbohunmi and Abud-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject  matter understandable to students’ during teaching learning process.  According to Abiola (2009), the advantage of instructional materials are that they are cheaper to produce, useful in teaching large number of students at a time encourage learners to pay proper attention and enhance their interest.
However, Akinleye (2010) attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical realistic and pragmatic.  Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004) agreed that instructional materials are essential tools that can make leading practical and knowledge acquisition easier, they are not readily available in Nigerian schools learning to low level of performance of earners in government examinations (Abdu-Raheem 2004).  He encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great measure enhance learners full participation in the lesson gives room for inquiry, problem – solving, discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among students and the teacher.
Therefore, Ogbondah (2008) advocated for teacher’s resourcefulness and also encouraged them to search for necessary instructional materials is through local means to supplement or replace the standard ones.  Oso (2011) also agreed that the best way for teachers to make use of their manipulative skills is to improve so as to achieve their lesson objectives at least to reasonable extent.  Jekayinfa (2012) also identified the importance of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substitute one thing for another, allows the students’ to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher students’ resource oriented.  Abdu-Raheem (2014) submitted that improvisation of locally made teaching aids could assist to improve quality of graduates turn out from schools and standard of education generally.  Abdu-Raheem and Oluwagbohunmi (20150 also corroborated the idea that resourceful and skillful teachers should improvise necessary instructional materials to promote academic standard in Nigeria primary schools.
Statement of the Problem
          Teaching over the years have been faced with various problems ranging from the absence of instructional materials that are relevant in the class to teacher factors.  Therefore, one can say that lack of instructional resources in primary schools affects pupils’ performance, interest and attitudes of students towards learning.  One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of primary school pupils’ in both local and standardized examinations.  It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years.  It was observed that pupils usually fail in examinations owing to improper to aching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery.  This study therefore deemed it necessary to look specifically into the improvisation of teaching aids as the correlates of academic achievement of primary school pupil in Ado local government area of Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study

  1. The effect of instructional materials in pupil academic.
  2. Investigate the teacher attitude towards improvisation of available materials during teaching and learning of pupils’ in primary schools in Ekiti State.
  3. Examine the strategies to promote the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning in primary schools in the aforementioned area.

Significance of the Study
          This study will make teachers to be aware of the importance of                   instructional materials not only to the state of approach but also the immense potentials interest in the use of instructional resources on the teaching and learning in primary schools.
The findings will also provide information to the government of Ekiti State on the way and means of enhancing better relationship between the teachers and the pupils the research result will furnish educators such as teacher and administrators with more reliable information on the importance of improvisation of teaching aids in teaching and learning with meaningful relevant and functional.
Research Questions
          The following research questions were generated to guide the study.

  1. What are the effects of instructional materials on pupil academic performance?
  2. What are the teacher’s attitudes towards improvisation of available materials during teaching and learning?
  3. Are there any strategies to promote the use of instructional material for effective teaching and learning in primary schools?

Delimitation/Limitation of the Study
This research work will be delimited to all public primary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.  Due to the limited materials and limited time, however collection of adequate, relevant and accurate information would be ensured.  The limitation of the study will be resolve by guiding and respondent on how to fill the questionnaire.
Definitions of Terms
          The following terms are defined as it was used in the study

  1. Improvisation: Is defined as providing a substitute through innovation and production in the absence of the real things.
  2. Teaching Aids: Are materials that is use to communicate between instructor and the learner for better understanding of the subject matter e.g drawing board, television, computer system, projector, cardboard etc.
  3. Curriculum: Curriculum is bodies of value co-oriented learning contents existing as a reading discover or in the mind of the teachers taught when give out as instruction result in change in pupil’s behaviours.
  4. Teaching: Teaching is the conscious and deliberate efforts or matured or experienced person impact information and knowledge and experienced person with the intention that the later will learn or come to believe on whether he is being taught on ground.
  5. Syllabus: Syllabus is a context outline or statement of the main point of a course of study spring up from the board of curriculum of the school
  6. Learning: Learning is a change of modification in behaviour of organization as a result of experience or reaction to stimulus in this environment.


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