EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES ON LECTURER’S ATTITUDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS

EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES ON LECTURER’S ATTITUDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS
                                            ABSTRACT
          The educational system has for long had
serious hit from examination malpractice and this has brought into focus the
need to tackle this issues in order of findings ways to eradicate such problems
in the light of the above the study looked at examination malpractices in Ekiti
State higher institution with the view to achieve the following objectives.
1.                
To
find out the causes of examination malpractice in the college.
2.                
To
find out the various means by which students use to cheat during examination
3.                
To
investigate the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and
educational system in general
4.                
To
profound possible solutions, which could be use to eradicate the problem of
examination malpractice.
To achieve these objectives the
problem of examination malpractice. To achieve these objectives the survey
method was used for data collection, we used questionnaire to elicit
information from chose school students, the result of the data analysis showed
that the main causes of examination malpractice is the strong desire to acquire
a certificate well labeled and most parents encourage them on it and the method
commonly used is spying and copying of answers to examination questions from
fellow students and examination malpractices has brought disastrous effect on
students and the educational system in Nigeria and finally, some measure to
adopt in eradicating this problems is:
1.                
Punishing
students or whoever is involved in the act.
2.                
Spacing
of students in the hall              
3.                
Higher
payment and regular payment of salaries to supervisors and lecturers
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                                  
Certification                                                                                                        
Approval Page                                                                                          
Dedication                                                                                                 
Acknowledgement                                                                                              
Abstract                                                                                                     
Table of Contents                                                                                      
CHAPTER ONE : Introduction                                                              

Background of the Study                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                           

Purpose of the Study                                                                                          

Significance of the Study                                                                           

Scope of the Study 
                                                                                  

Limitation of the Study                                                                             

Research Question                                                                                     

Research Hypothesis                                                                                 

Definition of Terms  
                                                                                

CHAPTER TWO         : Literature
Review

Forms
of examination malpractice                                                            
Causes
of examination malpractice                                                           
Effect
of examination malpractice in Ekiti state tertiary institution          
Effects of Examination Malpractice on National
Development                        
Solution
to examination malpractice                                                                  
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology                                                           

Research Design                                                                                         

Area of the  Study                                                                                       28

Population of the Study                                                                             

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                              

Research Instrument                                                                                  

Validity of the Instrument                                                                         
Reliability of the Instrument                                                                      
Method of Data Analysis                                                                                    
CHAPTER FOUR
Results
and Discussion                                                                              
Testing
of Hypotheses                                                                                
CHAPTER Five

Summary                                                                                                   

Conclusion                                                                                                
Recommendation                                                                                       
Limitations of the Study                                                                                     
Suggestion
for further research                                                                           
REFERENCES                                                                                        
QUESTIONNAIRE                                             

                                    

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background
to the Study

            Malpractices
according to the advance oxford learners dictionary (2000) is wrong doing,
neglect to duty. According to  
Adekunle
(2003)
examination
malpractices could be defined as behaviour contrary to a set of expected code
of conduct or contrary to a set of ethic and norms exhibited in the course of
examination by persons or group of persons.
            The
definition makes it clear that examination malpractice is not only illegal but
its effect degrading and devastating.
            Adesina
(2000)
stated that in
recent years the rampant occurrence of examination malpractices in several
institutions of learning in Nigeria have become a matter of concern to all.
This statement denote that the rate at which candidates indulge in examination
malpractice, examination leakage, impersonation, copying and certificate
forging is alarming and it put the examination and the country as a sole in an
embarrassing position, because it under estimate the quality of our educational
system.
            Examination
has been viewed in different ways by different authors, educationists and
researchers. According to Kailani and Usman (2009), examination is an organized
assessment technique which presents individuals with a series of questions or
tasks geared towards ascertaining, if the individual acquired skills and
knowledge.
            Oyechere
(2010), also define examination as a formal test of somebody’s knowledge,
skills or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of oral and
written questions or practical exercise. In all countries of the world,
examination which are in reality and frequently used in competitions, are
designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate the remainder to
certain known vacancies.
            Examination malpractice has been
defined differently by educators, authors, researchers, administrators and
supervisors. Onuoha (2009) defined examination malpractice as unfair practices
or irregularities or infringement or irregularities during the conduct of
examination. He posited that examination malpractice in recent times has become
a threat to the integrity of the nation. As a cankerworm, it has eaten deep
into the fabric of the education industry, thus becoming a global issue which
has caused some sleepless nights to many genuine academics and scholars. In
spite of the crusade made against it by the government and other lovers of
education, it still grows speedily more than ever. To Ahmed (2010), examination
malpractice is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and
regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by
any reason. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to hear people discuss examination
malpractice as if it is a custom. Perpetrators of this social menace view it as
an act which everybody partakes in, hence it is generally acceptable.
            The
origin of examination malpractice can be traced back to 1914 when senior
Cambridge local examination leaked. This was thirty-eight years before West
Africa Examination Council was established in the primary school cheating and
alternation of marks are quite for common malpractice is even more evident in
the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), joint admission matriculation board
JAMB and other examination conducted by the federal ministry of education.
Paul (2012)
reported that the above
fact was responsible for the 1987 decision by the federal ministry of education
professor
Ajibola . (2006)
states that the registrar indicated the examination malpractices constitution
is one of the biggest problems facing the boards.   
            He
expressed disappointment at the way candidates despite efforts that have been
made by school admission examination bodies and the government in terms of
disciplinary measure in order to curb examination malpractice.
Education is the development of an
individual through training, transmission of what is worthwhile to the point
that he is able to fit into his environment and contribute to the best of his
ability for the wellbeing of the society. Our educational system uses
examination to grade students in internal and external examinations in Nigeria.
However, examinations are known to play very important roles in our educational
system. They are used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to
students in secondary schools and other institutions of learning. A students
with a distinction all through in certificate examination will be regarded by
those around him as academically precious. He is also likely to have a place in
institution of higher learning or in job situation within the society than a
child with a mere pass or a failure. All these conditions have combine to
influence a student’s attitude to an examination malpractice
Itedjere
(2006)
defined
examination malpractice as any misconduct or improper practice in any
examination with a view to obtaining good results through fraudulent action.
Okafor
(2004)
define
examination malpractice as an irregular behaviour exhibited by candidates or
anybody charged with the conduct of examination in or outside the examination
hall before, during or after such examinations.
Sooze (2004) sees it as irregularities which are
premediated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the
intention of gaining undue advantages in the examination.
Investigations conducted by the
national concord of Tuesday June, 1998 revealed how teachers help students to
engage in examination malpractice, by coaching them before examination and the
changing of incorrect answers afterwards. This trend according to the report is
being used by the schools involved to improve their position in the performance
tables, which have become a key indicator for parents choosing a school for
their children. Examination malpractices renders certificates issued by
examination bodies unreliable. The examination bodies lose finally, manpower in
their bid to overcome examination malpractice. In view of the adverse effects
that examination malpractices have on the educational system, it became
necessary to critically examine it. At what stage do examination malpractice
occur, what are their impact on the students themselves and on education
standards?

Statement
of the Problem              

            Examination
malpractice has long been  existence in
our society and have been taken by different investigation on the subject and
in-spite of these. examination malpractice still thrives in our educational
system. Despite the disastrous effect it has on students, parents, educational
system but the society at large, like
a.                 
Cancellation
of results
b.                 
Lowering
of standard when under serving students are allowed in posses requiring high
standard of performance.
c.                 
Lack
of motivation or incentive to read hard in order to be successful in
examination.
d.                 
Promote
laziness and laxity in schools where by students do not read their books with
what have been taught.
It is the purpose of this research to
inquire deeply into the causes of examination malpractices and find possible
solution in order to eradicate this act from the educational system and the
nation in general.

Purpose
of the Study     

            In
the course of the study the project researcher attempt to achieve the following
objectives.
1.                 
To
find out the factor responsible for examination malpractices in Ekiti State
higher institution.
2.                 
To
examine the people involved in examination malpractice.
3.                 
To
suggest possible solution to the problem of examination malpractices in Ekiti
State and the various schools that make up the in the state.

Significance
of the Study 

            The
study intends to find out the factors that are responsible for examination
malpractice and also some possible measure to eradicate it. It will help us to
shift emphasis from paper qualification on job to experience by policy making
those who plan the curriculum in Nigeria relevant authority  in Nigeria institution and the state ministry
of education with information and new ideas concerning examination
malpractices.
            It
will also help such organization as the Nigeria national council in the areas
of examination malpractices.     

Scope
of the Study

            The
study intends to find out the causes and some possible solution to examination
malpractice in Nigeria institution. The study is restricted to the Ekiti State
University, University  of Nigeria
Nsukka, Ikere Campus, Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti, College of Education,
Ikere Ekiti

Research
Question

1.      What are the influence of examination
malpractice on lecturer attitude to lecturing in higher institution
2.      What are the influence of examination
malpractice on student attitude to learning in higher institution
3.      Is there any remedies to curb
examination malpractice among lectures in Higher institution

Research
Hypotheses

1.      There is no significant influence of
examination malpractices on lectures’ attitude to learning in higher
institutions.
2.      There is no significant influence of
examination malpractice on student’s attitude to learning in higher institution
3.       There is no significant influence of
examination malpractice on lecturer attitude to lecturing in higher
institution.

Definition
of Terms  

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination: It is a
way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study
the candidate has mastered. In other words, it is a process through which
studies are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have
acquired within a specific period.
Malpractice: It is a
failure of professional person to proper services through reprehensive
ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent. It is also referred to as
improper misconduct.
Examination malpractice: Is any act of omission or commission
that contravenes the Rules and Regulations of the examination body to the
extent of undermining the validity and reliability of the tests and ultimately,
the integrity of the certificates issued.
School Authorities:  This refers to teachers and
principals who are invigilators and supervisors of examination in schools.
Education:  It is the transmission of cultural renewal.
It is the development of the mind and body (cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor domains) of an individual in order that he/she may become useful to
the society.
Educational Administrator:  This refers to someone
who administers an educational organization of a unit within the organization
either a system or an institution such as university, polytechnics, colleges,
etc.
Teacher: One
who educates and train others to learn .He is the person who impacts knowledge
into others through some teaching skills and methods.
Curriculum: 
This is a guide to the things students are taught in schools. Thus, the
content of teaching and learning can be in the form of theory and practice.
School Facilities: 
this refers to thing such as buildings, classroom chairs, tables, school
hall, Field, Materials etc. that are useful in the school system and enhances
effective teaching and learning.
Test Anxiety: This refers to the fear a student
exhibits before, during or after writing a test.
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