effects of drugs and stimulants abuse among Secondary School Students

CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
to the Study
             A drug can be defined as any
chemical solid liquid or amorphous substance derived from plants, animals or
mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some
desirable effects.
             Also, drug can be defined as a substance which by its
chemical nature has an effect to open the body of higher various system (the
mind). The effect of drug could be positive or negative.
             Since the early times, herbs, leaves, and plants have
been used to heal and control diseases. The use of drugs itself doesn’t
constitute any danger, because drugs correctly administered have been a
blessing (Falco 1988) as cited by Sambo (2008) viewed that “chronic use of
substances can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to adolescent’s
physical and psychological development.” The use of drugs can be beneficial or
harmful depending on the mode of use.
           Cajetan I. , Ignatius O. and
Chinagorom Onwunaka stated in their research that the main drugs that the
students who took part in their study used include analgesics, stimulants,
anti-malaria, alcohol, worm expellants, nasal decongestants, sleeping pills,
laxatives, and anti-biotic, and their main source of drug information included
print media, television, radio and peers.
            Drugs were introduced into Nigeria
by soldiers returning from the Second World War and since then it has been
spread among political thugs, criminals, and adolescent population. However,
drugs use in Nigeria began attracting the attention of researchers in late 60’s
Borrofka, (1996).
Positive
Effect of Drug
Drug when properly used
or taking into living organism, produces the desired result, and may modify one
or more of its functional parts; it is usually prepared by the medical
practitioner. Such drugs or substances are either of vegetables, animals or
mineral origin. They could be prepared for the human body that produces the
desired results into the treatment of disease and ailment.
Negative
Effects of Drug (Drug Abuse)
The negative effects of
drug is also referred to as drug abuse. Drug abuse is therefore defined as
excessive consumption of a drug by any individual. Drug abuse results when
there is self injection or from the approved medical usage –drug abuse in
involved in the following:
1.     Excessive
use of drugs and use of unpressurized drugs.
2.     Uses
of hard drugs.
Excessive
use of drugs and use of unpressurized drugs:
This is when an
individuals takes in drugs without following the current perception of the
doctor.
Use of hard drugs:
Hard are capable of
affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the
central nervous system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at
large.
          According to Agwusike (1990) drug abuse is the use of drugs
above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original
prescription.
          Adi also defined drug abuse as self-treatment of physical
ailment which could result from ignorance.
           Adolescents prefer an autonomous and
independent life that is free from adult control, thereby engaging in various
delinquent acts (drug abuse, rape, robbery, cultism and vandalism) that are
dangerous to the home, community, school, and the nation. The impact of drug and
stimulant abuse among adolescence has been a stigma of moral decadence,
violence, thuggery, assault, madness and murder.
         Drug use is a consequence of
interaction between complex circumstances as individual predisposition,
personality traits, family and peer influence and the role of an individual in
the society (Davies, 1994). Surveys (Wright, 1995, Ogel, Tamar, Evren and
Cakmak, 2000; Gel, Tamar, Evren 2001; Read, Wood, Davidoff, McLacken and
Campbell, 2002; Igwe and Ojnnaka, 2010) suggest that in both in and out of
school adolescents, the socially acceptable drugs like alcohol and cigarettes
are commonly used. Psychological dynamics influencing drug use identified
included peer pressure, lack of self-confidence, reduction of stress and
frustration, curiosity and search for excitement, experimentation and conduct
problems while social factors include poverty, family problems and social
acceptability of local alcoholic drinks like palm wine ( Freud, 1953: Johnston,
O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2008, Ndu, Olarewaju & Somoye, 2009).
          Proper drug use means taking in
medication in the right dosage and continuing the medication on the advice of a
professional. Drug abuse is the misuse of illegal substances. Some medication
makes the user feel good, since they target certain nerve track in the brain,
known as pleasurable pathways. The person may “be high” and wish to experience
it again. Drug such as cocaine stimulates the path of the brain that releases
dopamine, which gives the person a feeling of well being and happiness
(Seraphim 2005) when such drugs become a habit, they can be destructive to the
user, as the pleasurable pathway starts to run off.
            Secondary School Students are at
risk population for substance-related problems (Simons, Gaher, Correia, Hansen
& Christopher, 2005). The consumption of alcohol, legal and illegal drugs
in the Secondary School population tends to be growing (Simons, Gaher, Correia,
Hansen & Christopher, 2005; Read, Wood, Davidoff, McLacken & Campbell,
2002) and has become a source of worry in many countries. The passage from
Junior Secondary School to Senior Secondary School is usually marked by an
increment in frequency of opportunities for peer interaction and in importance
of the role of peer norms.
                      Direct (or active) peer influences, explicitly
focus on getting a person to drink. Also, peers through their own actions, may
provide information about which behaviors are accepted and admired, which is
considered appropriate in a given social context and therefore what behaviors
are likely to lead to social acceptance and reinforcement. Each of these
indirect influences set the stage for anticipated social reinforcement (Bosari
and Carey, 2001).
            Drugs and stimulants abuse are
responsible for the high rate of drop out in our Secondary Schools. It is
realized that students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State uses drugs
and stimulants. These drugs are available in drug stores and provision stores
and illegal areas such as hideout and so on; where the students can easily buy
them. The menace of drugs and stimulants abuse has eaten deep into the fabrics
of our society; however, with effective counseling programs, the problems can
be tackled through campaign against drug abuse by government and other relevant
authorities. Drug control counseling centers should be established in every
community, and qualified health counselors should be employed in helping drug
addicts by given them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system.
It is in the realization of the above that this research aims at the following
objectives.
           An estimation tracking the
prevalence of drug use among adolescents seems to be very important while some
data indicate decrease in alcohol abuse among adolescents in recent years; it
is not the case with other drugs, especially with cannabis and over the counter
drugs, including these labeled prescription drugs (National Institute of
Health, 2005; Wright, 1995). However, it could be basically difficult to estimate
the number of Secondary School Students using drugs and perhaps a survey.
STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM
          The use of drugs for pure curatives
purpose should be discouraged in schools. It has effect not only on the
children but also to cure or rehabilitate the victims.
           Vandalism, Hooliganism and act of
thuggery that characterize the students presently are a matter of concern to
school administrators, parents and guardians.
(A) The effects of the use of these
substances is not particular to the users only but also to the society at
large. By way of example, Indian hemp or Cannabis is blamed for almost every
deviance in adolescents especially in less developed societies.
(B) Sports administrators ascribe
hooliganism and thuggery in sports to drugs abuse among spectators majority of
who are adolescents.
(C) Psychiatrist believes that in
Nigeria, drugs such as Indian hemp precipitate erotic behavior among our
youths. 
(D) School administrator see drug
addiction as one of the factors behind rebellion, indiscipline and even fallen
of standard of education in our Schools. It is also responsible for the high
rate of dropouts in our secondary schools.
         Specifically, this research work is
indeed to find out the effect of drugs and stimulants on the academic
performance and general behaviors of students.
OBJECTIVE
OR PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
           The main objectives of the study are
to know the effects of drugs and stimulants abuse among Secondary School
Students in Ikere Local Government Area. However, the specific objectives are;
(i)               
To identify and examine the various
types of drugs and stimulants used by Students in Ikere Local Government Area.
(ii)            
To identify areas where drugs are
procured.
(iii)          
To identify the ways by which the drugs
affect the students academically and discipline wise.
(iv)          
To suggest possible solutions to the
problems of drugs and stimulants abuse in Secondary Schools.
SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY
          The research will contribute to the
Existing literatures on drugs and stimulants abuse at the Secondary School
level. It will open parents, teachers and principal’s eyes to various ways to
which their wards abuse drugs and solutions can be found to the problems.
SCOPE
OF THE STUDY
          This research project is limited by
the number of students to be used. The research is going to be centered on post
primary school students. This is because primary school pupils hardly take
drugs.
RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
1.     Are
secondary school students involve in the use of drugs?
2.     Are
male secondary school students abuse drugs more than female secondary school
students?
3.     How
do you get involved in drug usage?
4.     How
do you normally obtain the drug you take?
DEFINITION
OF TERMS
(1)   Drug:
It is any substance which affects the individual mood and perception or may
modify one or more of his functions.
(2)   Drug
Abuse: This is a situation when drugs are frequently used without the Doctor’s
prescription.
(3)   Stimulants:
These are substances which have the capability to stimulate or to spur one’s
mortal or body activities, are found in food, drinks like tea, coffee and other
beverages.
(4)   Drug
Addiction: Drug addiction is a behavioral pattern of compulsive drug. The
security of its supply and a high tendency to release after withdrawal.
(5)   Psychotropic
Drug: These are divided into two groups’ i.e. the hard and soft drugs.
(a) 
Hard Drug: They are drugs that are
liable to disable the individual as a functioning member of the society
inducing severe emotional and physical dependence. Examples are cocaine,
heroin, morphine, petroline e. t. c.
(b)
Soft Drugs: These are drugs which
produce a lesser degree of dependence than the hard drugs. There may be
emotional dependence; examples are Indian hemp, alcohol and tobacco.



CHAPTER
TWO
    
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
            This presents the review of related
literature under the following sub-headings.
(1)   Concept
of drug abuse.
(2)   Drugs
commonly abused.
(3)   Types
of drug abused and theories of drug abuse.
(4)   Causes,
signs, and symptoms of drug & stimulant abuse.
(5)   The
detrimental effects of substances abuse.
(6)   Marijuana
smoking among secondary school students.

Summary.                                                           

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