TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Study
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Concept of unemployment
Nigeria Policy on National Youth
Sociological Implications of Unemployment on
Situation Analysis of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
Reasons for the Failure of government Programmes as
Regard Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
Problems of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
Solutions to Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Source of Data Collection
Validity of Instrument
Administration of instrument
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary Conclusion, and
This study examines the effect of unemployment among Nigerian youths. As perceived by High School Leavers in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The target population of this study was High School Leavers in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. One hundred High School Leavers from various locations were randomly selected. A set of questionnaire were used to obtain information from high school leavers. The percentage statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that unemployment among youths has a negative effect on economic growth and development of Ekiti State. It was also discovered that Nigeria government has not taken the issue of unemployed youths serious; hence, majority of unemployed youth attributed their failure to bad economy of the nation. Based on these findings, it was recommended that Nigeria youth can make their living provided they are industrious. Alsoa course of study should be determined by the students, the students can be aided in choice of career through effective career counseling programs which should be undertaken to enlighten students at post primary educational levels on career prospects, lastly government should encourage private sector establishment by setting up a special bank that will set to disbursement of loans at reasonable interest rate in order to enable our unemployed youths to start some business on their own and this must be taken through a thorough supervision.
Background of the Study
Economists are unable to agree on the causes of or cure for unemployment (or anything else, it seems). The essence of the Keynesian explanation is that firms demand too little labour because individuals demand too few goods. The classical view was that unemployment was voluntary and could be cleared by natural market forces. The neo-classical theory states that there is a natural rate of unemployment, which reflects a given rate of technology, individual preferences and endowments. With flexible wages in a competitive labour market, wages adjust to clear the market and any unemployment that remains is voluntary. The latter view was that held by Milton Friedman and strongly influenced government policy in the early 1980s, but without success. There is, of course, no simple explanation of unemployment and no simple solution.
Unemployment is the greatest challenge to underdeveloped and developing countries. The phenomenon of youth unemployment (YU) as it is being experienced in the developing countries constitute a peculiar problems to labor market and the general economy of these countries. From the content analysis perceptions of job seekers on the issue of youth unemployment in a study conducted by Fajana (2000), the following factors were identified as the major causes of unemployment in Nigeria: The long period of initial unemployment among youths in Nigeria , faulty manpower planning and expansion of educational facilities that have unduly raised the expectations of Nigerian youths, the economic recession, continued proportionality of expatriates in employment, the collective bargaining process, school leavers attitude to jobs in other location as well as search behaviour of employers and job seekers, use of capital intensive technology, wide rural- urban migration, formal – informal sectors differentials. All these and many other factors contribute the causes of unemployment among youth in Nigeria. He further explained that unemployment an identical bane is a global trend which affects people in variousdepths and levels at different times and phases of existence. The extent of association between poverty and unemployment in the developing countries is often a subject of considerable debate. There is actually no nation that is absolutely free from poverty and unemployment. The major difference is the degree and pervasiveness of this similar blight.
Nigeria, with half the population of West Africa and a vast spread of natural resource endowment, has the potential to be the source of growth and prosperity for the whole region. Nigeria’s current economic under-performance is erratic and short of expectations, such that 66% of Nigeria’s citizens, educated youths especially, live below the international poverty line, at just $1.00 a day or $300.00 a year (Omotosho, 2009). This is an indication that the nation of Nigeria over the years has gradually disintegrated from its highly buoyant and respected position among developing nations of the south. Available records (Ipaye, 1998; ISHR, 2006) show clearly that in the two preceding decades of the independence of Nigeria as a sovereign nation (1960s, 1970s), unemployment and its attendant consequence-poverty were not of national concern as they are today. The nation’s agricultural, industrial and the then bubbling public service sectors were able to effectively absorb most of the labour force. The agricultural sector, for instance, generated about 70% of the nation’s employment opportunities and accounted for about 8% of the Gross Domestic Product (ISHR, 2006). With the advent of petroleum products and the crude oil in the mid 70s, the economy was further strengthened as it grew at an average of over 11% revenue. The ensuring political instability and inconsistencies in the socio-economic and educational policies of successive governments, however, emerged as major factors that led to the manifestation of high level of joblessness in Nigeria. Nigeria is economically under-productive, relative to its potential for significant development (Omotosho , 2009).
Again, Nigeria’s capacity to employ its own population seems to diminish progressively despite the country’s quantifiable fiscal ability resulting from the production and sale of oil. The level of unemployment in Nigeria appears to grow geometrically every year, in contrast to its regional neighbors most of who have far less resources. Anameza, (2000), stated that Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development or of improving the welfare of its people; unless it enhances the chances of employment for its graduates. The World Bank (1993) reported that continuously enhanced employment and productivity have been central to the brilliant performance of the so-called “Asian Tigers” and Japan. This implies that absence of such enhanced employment visibly retards Nigeria’s chances.
Therefore it can be deduced that correspondingly, high productivity stimulates both global balances of powers, which affect Nigeria and its people, as well as the direction of world resources, such as labour. The unemployment problem in Nigeria remains persistent and even growing by the day with a labour force approximately 3 million persons (mostly youths) annually moving into job market (Adelodun, 2006). Statistics of Nigerian unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes but also of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria’s unemployed and consequently poor are well educated even by European and American standards. Nigeria’s underemployment and low productivity constitute a vicious cycle that explains the endemic poverty in the country.
Overall, unemployment in Nigeria has affected youths from a broad spectrum of socio-economic groups, both the well and less well educated, although it has particularly stricken a substantial fraction of youths from low income backgrounds and limited education. From the foregoing, it is obvious that unemployment, especially the unemployment of graduates, impedes Nigeria’s progress in many ways. Apart from economic waste, it also constitutes danger for political stability (Ipaye, 1998). It is disturbing to note that Nigeria’s graduates have limited chances of becoming gainfully employed. It is even more disheartening that the country’s economic condition is such that, it is hardly able to absorb an optimal proportion of the production of its own educational system. Gone were the days when employers go about looking for employees.
Statement of the Problem
In an age where some nations of the world are celebrating and probably perfecting their achievement in social welfare and human development, Nigeria and most African nations seemed to be chained down by various degrees of problems in the Nigeria context, the rate at which unemployment is growing among the youths needs to be addressed. Consequently, the policy makers originated National Directorate of Employment (NDE) to create mass employment but in spite of all this effort, unemployment has continued to affect the youth of Ekiti State.This study is therefore geared towards identifying the effect of unemployment among Nigerian youths, and suggest ways of solving these problems.
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this project is to construct an applied and evident on the effect of unemployment and determine the causes, effects and solutionsamong high school leavers in Ado metropolitan. The specific objectives of the study therefore include the following;
- To examine the effect of unemployment on economic growth and development in Ado local government area of Ekiti State.
- To identify and analyze the major causes of unemployment among high school leavers in Ado local government area of Ekiti State.
- To provide workable recommendations that can be useful to assist the reduction and elimination of unemployment by policy makers.
Significance of Study
Unemployment is really assuming a crisis level in the study area. Therefore the study will be relevant to the following;
- It will provide an insight into the relevant literature.
- It will help to lay a bare the causes and effects of unemployment in the study area.
- It will help the general populaces to appreciate the fact that unemployment is scourge that need to be faced in order to achieve economic growth and development.
- It is expected that through the findings and subsequent recommendations of this study, unemployment will be reduced or eradicated.
- Finally it is the opinion of the researcher because it will serve as a spring board for further research.
The following questions are raised in order to guide this research work;
- What are the effects of unemployment on economic growth and development in Ado local government area of Ekiti State?
- What are the major causes of unemployment among high school leavers in Ado local government area of Ekiti State?
- What are the workable recommendations that can be useful to assist the reduction and elimination of unemployment?
Limitations of the Study
A study of this nature cannot be completed without the researcher experiencing some constraints. The first major limitation of the study that is expected is lack of time. This is due to the fact that both academic course work and the study were taking place simultaneously. Another possible limitation by the researcher is the lack of sufficient data on unemployment which greatly affected the study in terms of carrying out a direct and detailed econometric analysis on the variables. Finally for an in-depth work to be carried out in this study, the sourcing of data was not easy.
Definition of Terms
The following definition of terms simply represents the specific meaning that will be given to them in this study
Unemployment: This is a situation where by onethat is able and willing to work at a prevailing wage rate does not have work to do.
Poverty: This is a living condition in which an individual is unable to take-care of his basic needs like clothing, food, shelter, inability to meet social and economic obligations, lack of gainful employment and other environmental opportunities at his disposal.
Unemployment Rate: This is the percentage of labor force without jobs but is willing and available for work.
National Income: This is the total amount of income given to a country from economic activities usually in a given year or the total value of goods and services produced annually in a country.
Per-Capita Income: This is the average income of the people of a country in a particular year. It is obtained by dividing the national income of a country by its population.
Economic Development:– This refers to the concentrated actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. It can also be referred to as the qualitative and quantitative changes in the economy.
Youth: Youth is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity). It is also defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit e.t.c, characteristics of one who is young.