EFFECT OF THE USE OF VISUAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BASIC SCIENCE

EFFECT OF THE USE OF VISUAL AIDS
IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BASIC SCIENCE
ABSTRACT
This
project work was undertaken to survey the effect of the use of visual aids in
the teaching and learning of Basic Science in some selected junior secondary
school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. To find solution to the
problems which gave to undertaking the survey questionnaires were raised to
check the availability use and the attitude of teachers towards visual aids in
basic science teaching in the selected junior secondary school in the local
government areas of study. From the findings it was discovered that visual aids
are not available in schools therefore teachers teach the various science
theories and skills without the required basic aids. Recommendations were
therefore made to the appropriate authorities to provide and maintain audio/visual
aids in the teaching of Basic Science so as to enhance the promotion of
learning among pupils towards improved yearly performance and daily
use.  

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0           
          BACKGROUND
OF STUDY
          Instructional
materials are materials or tools used to enhance or enlighten the effective
teaching and learning process among students in schools. Teaching and learning
are concerned with the training of students, but learning is a complete
process.
          It
can however be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent
change in behaviour overtime and this is brought about by experience, learning
can occur as a result of newly acquired skills, knowledge, perceptions, facts,
principles, new information at hand etc Adeyangu (2001). Learning can be
reinforced with learning aids of different variety because they stimulate,
motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention for a while during the
instructional process.
          Learning
aids are instructional materials are devices through which teaching and
learning are done in schools as in Ekiti State secondary schools (junior).
Examples of learning aids (instructional materials) includes visual aids, audio
– visual aids, real objects and many others like laboratory apparatus which are
test – tube, Boiling tube, conical flask, spring and chemical balance,
separating funnel, filter paper, burettes, retort stand, pipette, beakers etc
for effective stability of teaching and learning of integrated science. Again
materials for effective teaching and learning of Basic Science are use of
textbooks, specimen or chart and chalkboard for demonstration.        
Visual Aids referred to as teaching
aids which called instrument materials is described by Terry and Thomas (2009),
as “Teaching materials or learning resources available to teaching”. It is
against this background that the applications of teaching aids are very
necessary in teaching or learning situations in the school system; especially
in Basic Science. According to advanced learners’ Dictionary, teaching aids are
things used to help the teachers during teaching or used in teaching.
Visual aids are designed materials
that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall –
charts illustrated pictures, pictures, pictorial materials and other two
dimensional objects. There are also audio – visual aids. These are teaching
machines like radio, television and all sorts of projection with sound
attribute, Inyang (2007). There are two main reasons why it is important to
actually show the students what the teachers are teaching.
1. Visuals clarify the material being
taught.
2. Visuals make learning more
permanent.
Audio visual aids in teaching and
learning of basic science embrace all possible media presenting information
effectively through the topics teaching in the subjects
          According
to Chinese proverb which says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember,
what I do I know”, audio – visual aid can be projected and non – projected
aids. Therefore teaching aids are meant to improve and supplement, also
implement and give a sophisticated analysis based on the topics taught in Basic
Science in junior classes.
          In
Basic science, students will have the knowledge of how water can be separated
from kerosene by the method called separation techniques, they will know how
the light rays disperse and also know the functions of organs, tissues and
cells in the human body by the use of laboratory apparatus, specimen, charts
and textbooks. Basic science is a combination of the main science subject which
includes integrated science, chemistry, physics and biology. Therefore,
teaching of Basic science give the junior students the knowledge of integrated
science, chemistry, physics and biology which they could understand and forge
ahead in senior classes.
          It
is interesting to note that large percentage of junior students in Ekiti urban
that undergo teaching and learning with some learning aids achieve more
performance in Basic science. They do so consciously because it is known that
the students who make the use of instructional materials have impacted more
positive effect on learning outcomes as their cognition experience during
teaching and learning which improves and revealed by use of instructional
materials.
          Yusuf
(2003) asserted that instructional materials are these materials and devices
used to supplement the written or spoken words in the process of transmitting
knowledge, attitudes, ideas and skills to the learners. He listed these
materials as including chalkboards, charts, graphs, diagrams, exhibits, flannel
boards, flat pictures photographs, prints, maps, models, motions pictures,
objects, specimens and textbooks. Others include equipments, excursion or field
trips and demonstrations, the necessity of instructional materials in the
teaching – learning process for the attainment of the goals of instruction is
not disputable. Ikwuakam (2006) observed that these materials bring the learner
face to face with reality. They concretize ideas, concepts, facts, principles
and generalizations. They are dependable for capturing the learner’s imaginations.
Azikiwe in Offorma (2004) asserted that these materials facilitate learning and
to save the teaching – learning process from being merely the talk approach.
They are needed for the achievement of curriculum objectives.
          The
adequate provision of instructional materials for teaching is important but it
is useless filling up rooms with materials which may end up getting spoilt
without being put into use for a day. It therefore means that the effective
utilization of instructional materials is necessary for the achievement of the
objective of instruction. The utilization of instructional materials according
to Olaitan (2009), involves the teacher manipulating these materials to
facilitate the teaching learning process.
          The
extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Basic
science stimulates on the operational definition of perception as it is
reflected and focused on variable and contextual factors as having effects on
how perception takes places. The individual perceives as a result of variables
surrounding the interpretation, this is why a teacher supposed to organize his
or her method of teaching around the aim and objective he/she intends the student
to achieve, in order to attain the objective. Instructional materials are
perceived as very important in the teaching – learning of Basic science.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It
is a common knowledge that the success of effective performance of students depend
on how the teacher make use of instructional materials and their failure
depends on when the instructional materials are not available and where it is
available it was not properly used.
There is
the assumption generally that visual aids are inadequate materials in our
secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
This research is an exploratory study
that seeks to examine the effects of using Visual teaching and learning by the
use of instructional materials in junior secondary schools in Ikere local
government area of Ekiti State which will give change in behavior,
comprehensible in learning and make them to be vibrant in knowledge.
Education is the bedrock and key to
any national development. It helps in producing the needed manpower for both
economic and technological development. It also teaches skills to the youths
thereby preparing them for a useful living. The acquisition for practice skills
and basic knowledge by student for activities in Basic science require the good
manipulation of skill oriented instructional materials. The Basic science
curricula are expected to achieve certain objectives, which the realization may
be difficult without an adequate provision and effective utilization of certain
materials (Visual Aids) in the teaching – learning process.
The power attitude of students toward
Basic Science, high cost of some instructional materials and poor performances
of students in Basic Science in (JSSCE) are some of the fundamental issue which
educational policy makers need to resolve. Salami (2012), stated that adequate
provision of facilities and equipment and their proper utilization have always
been positively correlated to good performances have been blamed on in
adequacies and ineffective utilization.
The teaching of Basic Science should
be dynamic, practical oriented and activity based. This would only be possible
when the necessary instructional materials are adequately provided in the
secondary schools. This would make the teaching and learning of Basic Science
to be effective, motivating and capture students’ interest. The benefit from
the use of instructional materials are only realized when the available
materials/facilitates are utilized by teachers in teaching-learning process.
Udosen (2003) said that most teachers have formed the habit of adopting the
verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching subjects in secondary
schools; this could be as result of unavailability of instructional materials
in the schools. Mkpa (2000), reported that even when instructional materials
like Visual Aids are available in schools, most teachers still do not use them
in teaching. The non-utilization of instructional materials in the teaching
learning process by teachers, according to Eshiet (2006), result to rotation
learning with all kinds of misconceptions, poor motivation, dampening of
aspirations, killing of morals and poor skill development.
It
is also a fact that the government has demonstrated a Luke-worm attitude to the
provision of instructional materials [Visual Aids] in our secondary schools in
Nigeria and Ikere local government as a case study cannot be exonerated.
It
is on this premise that this research work intends to study the Effect of
Visual Aids on the academic performance of students in Basic Science in
selected junior secondary school in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
PURPOSE / OBJECTIVE OF
THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to
determine the effects of the use of visual aids in the teaching / learning of Basic
science in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti
State.
Other purposes of the study are:-
1.     Identify the instructional materials
available for teaching Basic science.
2.     Assess the adequacy of the available
instructional materials in the schools.
3.     Find out the extent to which teachers
utilize the available materials in teaching integrated science and their
effects in the academic performance of the students.
4.     Identify the factors constraining the
provision of instructional materials in the schools.
5.     Determine measures for maximizing the
utilization of instructional materials especially Visual Aids in teaching of Basic
science in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti
State.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY
·       
The
findings of this study would provide the ministry of education with some useful
information which would make them appreciate the need to work out effective
means of providing the essential instructional facilities for junior secondary
schools in Ikere local government area as well as Ekiti state at large. The
ministry would do this by establishing instructional resources centre where
there materials could be easily made available.
·       
Government
would also see the need to organize seminars and conference for serving
teachers on the improvisation and utilization of visual aids and other instructional
materials for teaching the subjects in the schools.
·       
The
finding of this research would provide basic science teachers with some useful
information which would help them see the need for effective utilization of
instructional materials in the teaching – learning process.
·       
Students
would also benefit from the findings of the study as use of instructional
materials especially visual aids by teachers in the teaching of basic science
would arouse their interest in the subject and help them acquire skills in basic
science.
·       
Officials
of Education services and curriculum planners in the areas of basic science
would benefit from the findings of the study. They would be provided with some
information on the need for making instructional materials available for use by
basic science teachers, (Basic Outline
of the National Policy on Pre – Primary and Primary Education 2004).        
SCOPE OF STUDY
          These
covered the effect of the use of visual aids in teaching and learning of basic
science in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. It identified the
various instructional materials available, assessed their adequacy and effect
of utilization by teachers in the junior secondary schools, determined factors
constraining provision and measures for improving the use of instructional
materials (Visual Aids) for teaching and learning Basic science.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.     What instructional materials are
available for teaching Basic Science?
2.     How adequate are the available
instructional materials for the teaching – learning of Basic Science.
3.     To what extent do teacher utilize the
available instructional materials for teaching – learning of English and
integrated science.
4.     What are the effects of Using Visual
Aids in the teaching and learning of Basic Science?
5.     What factors constrain the provision
of instructional materials in the schools?
6.     What measures could be employed to
improve the utilization of instructional materials (Visual Aids) in the junior
secondary schools?
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