EFFECT OF STUDENT, LECTURERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN EKITI STATE.
Background to the Study
Education is an avenue of training and learning, especially in school or college to improve knowledge and develop skills. The ultimate purpose of education is to empower an individual to excel in a chosen field of endeavor or career and to be able to positively impact his/her environment. On the contrary, the end result of the processes of education have failed to maintain a high degree of academic distinction and excellence among learners and recipient of education in institution of learning as of these day Assefa (2008). Reasons that may be responsible for the prevailing circumstance could be largely remote in nature, such as educational policies on students enrolment and admission.
Nevertheless, strategies must be sorted and implemented to remedy the situation of poor academic performance in higher institution. for last two decades, the government Ethiopia was highly working in both expansion of educational sectors in all level and improving the quality of education in all disciplines. Expansion will create new universities, establish three system support agencies, amount new courses, and triple enrolments. Reforms introduce increased institutional autonomy, curriculum revision, new funding arrangement and student contributions by means of a graduate tax saint (2004).However, as some of facts have been revealed in some hard science, like physics, mathematics and chemistry, especially in physics, none of the graduates and students attitudes towards the subject at all levels has been declining.
Over the year, academic achievement become extremely important to all stake holder in education and for the student in particular the stigmatization of being called a “failure”. As noted by Othman and Leng (2011) students, academic achievement can be related to their choices of subject or streaming and even their secondary school, university and scholarship. Therefore, an important indicator of academic success at university level today is the academic achievement of students. Coetzee(2011) affirms that student with higher level of achievement at university are more likely to object good employment and salaries.
However, there has been variation in children’s cognitive abilities and skills which explain gap in academic achievement among students of varied racial and ethnic background (Hansen, Liu, and Kucera, 2010).yet such abilities and skills may not fully explain their academic achievement(Schunk and Zimmerman, 2007; Graham and huddle, 2005) suggesting that there are other pertinent factors at play in determine children’s academic achievement. It is in his context that the non-cognitive correlates of academic achievement such as academic self- concept and academic motivation, have been found to play a pivotal role in children school achievement (akinlana,2012; areepattamannil,2011, Adeyemo and Torubeli 2008) no study to date has examined the interrelationship among personality factors, academic emphasis, student-lecturers relationship and academic achievement orientation of Nigerian physics undergraduate student academic gain and learning performance is affected by numerous factor including gender ,age, teaching faculty, student schooling, Father/guardian social economic status, residential area of students, medium of instructions in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour and accommodation as hostelries or day scholar many researchers conducted detailed studies about the factors contributing student performance at different study level. Graetz(1995) suggested “A student educational success contingent heavily on social status of students parents/guardian in the society. Considine and Zappala (2002)noticed the same that parents income or social status positively affects the students test score in examination. According to Minnesota (2007) “the higher education performance is depending upon the academic. Performance of graduate students. Durden and Ellis queted Staffolani and Bratti (2002) observe that “ the measurement of student previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of students future achievement, this refers that as the higher previous appearance, better the students academic performance in future endeavors.
Lot of studies have been conducted in the area of students achievement and these studies identify and analyze the number of factors that affect the academic performance of the student at school, college and even at university level. Their finding identify students effort, previous schooling, parents educational background, family income, self motivation of students, age of student, learning preferences and entry qualification of students as important factors that have effect on students academic performance in different setting. The utility of these studies lies in the need to undertake corrective measures that improve the academic performance of graduate students.
It is generally assumed that the students who showed better or higher performance in the starting classes of their studies also performed better in future academic years at degree level. Everyone can be surprised with this assumption if it could be proved scientifically. From the last two decades it has been noticed significantly that there is great addition in research literature and review material relating to indicators of achievement measures of academic performance are best determinants of future academic gain at university or higher level or innovative measures. However, it is also observed that many of the researchers are not agree with this view point or statement. Reddy and Talcott (2006) look disagree with these assumption that future academic gains are resolute by preceding performance. In their research on the relationship between previous academic performance and subsequent achievement at university level, they found that students learning or studying at graduate level and the score secured did not predict any academic at university level. They also cited person and Johnson (1978) who observed that on the whole grade association of only 0.28 between graduate level marks and university degree achievement.
It is also confirmed in the study of Oregon state university (2003) on graduate admission that normal measures of educational potential and academic performance such as high school GPA(Grade Point Average) scores showed only 30% of the deviation initial or starting (first) year at college. It is important to note that even these studies do not agree with the former studies who explored that previous achievement affect the future performance of the students in studies, they confirmed that the admission scores are related to academic performance at university level but to a very minimal extent Mc Donald et al (2001) also suggested that the scores of graduate level studies still out perform any other single measure of cognitive aptitude in predicting success at university level.
Parents socio-economic condition, which includes parents academic and professional qualification, revenue and occupation affiliation is also associated with academic gain of students.
The result of many studies confirmed that academic achievement of student is contingent upon parent’s socio-economic condition. So the student belonging from higher social economical backgrounds will perform better than other students associated with low social economic backgrounds. “Social and economical status of student is generally determined by combining parents qualification, occupation and income standard” (jeynes,2002). Among many research studies economic status is one of the main elements studied while predicting academic performance.
Graetz(1995) conducted a study on socio-economic status of the parents of students and conclude that the socio-economic background has a great impact on students academic performance, main source of educational imbalance among student and students academic success contingent very strongly on parents socio economic standard. Considine and Zappala (2002) also having the same view as Graetz (1995), in their study on the influence of social and economic disadvantages in the academic performance of school students noticed, where the parents or guardians have social, educational and economical advantage definitely strengthen the higher level of success in future. But it is also noted that these parents make available sufficient psychological and emotional shore up to their children by providing good educational and learning environment that produces confidence and the improvement of skills needed for success.
Statement of the Problem
Prior research studies have focused mostly on academic achievement among young students, and provides no clear and consistent evidence regarding the extent to which personality factors relate to academic emphasis, students-teachers relationship an achievement the current study addresses these gaps whole among undergraduates in Nigeria. The consequences of not addressing the problem of students academic achievement are many student by their nature do get involved in very many activities outsides their studies. When student lose interest in their studies, failure rate will be higher. They may engage in very many unlawful activities like cultism, robbery, prostitution and tyranny, among other vices. Furthermore, students low academic achievement may result in failure. When failure becomes persistent, students may easily with draw from the school system. Research finding has also shown that economic deprivation could lead to failure.
Achievement is important in education. Despite the huge resources expended by government, results are not forthcoming. It is in view of these problems that research is currently being done to took into the personal factors that are responsible for students academic achievement among student in college of education so as to enable the student to bring about better performance
Purpose Of The Study
The broad objective is to investigate student lecturers and environmental factors as determinants of higher institutions student academic achievement in physics in Ekiti State.
The specific objective are;
- To identify the level of students academic achievement in federal, state and private tertiary in Ekiti State .
- To examine student attitude towards the learning of physics in tertiary institution.
- To determine the effect of educational status of lecturers on student academic performance .4 to find out the effect of environmental factors on student academic performance.
Based on the above purpose of the study, the study was designed to provide answers to the following question
- Is there any significant difference between students academic achievement in federal, state and private tertiary institution on in Ekiti state?
- Is there any significant relationship between lecturers qualification and students achievement in physics?
- Is there any significant relationship between students academic performance and environmental factors (parents educational qualification e.t.c)?
- Is there any significant relationship between student attitude in lecturer room and there academic performance in learning physics?
In other to answer the above research question, the following the research hypothesis were formulated
- There is no significant relationship between students academic achievement in federal, state tertiary, institution in Ekiti state
- There is no significant relationship between lecturers qualifications and students achievement in physics?
- There is no significant relationship between student academic performance and environmental factors (parents educational qualification e.t.c)
- There is no significant relationship between student attitude in lecture room and there academic performance in learning physics.
Significance Of The Study
This study is significant in many aspects. The study helps to reveal the components of environmental factors responsible for students academic achievement in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. It compares the relationship of the variables with one another as they affect students from the colleges used for the study. Ranking of the factor was done according to the perception of the students to make readers have an overview of interrelatedness of the variables used for the study. This is of particular significance in a democratic environment where political parties attempt to improve educational performance in a comprise manner. The study therefore offers empirical support to assist educational policy makers, administrators and educators in the educational planning and implementation.
Finally, student would also benefit from the study through suggestions offered on ways of improving students academic achievement by the various interaction of the components of personal factor identified in the study and the study was lay a solid foundation which subsequent researchers in similar studies may build upon
Delimitation Of The Study
The study investigate student, lecturers and environment factors as determinants of higher institution student academic achievement in physics in Ekiti state.
Definition Of Term
- Education; can be defined as a process through which an individual becomes integrated into the society, becomes a promoter of his societal culture and contribution to the development of this society.
- Academic Achievement; this is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
- Factors; this is a constituent or element that bring about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple, number, quantity.
- Determinant; this is a factor which decisively affects the nature of outcome of something.