EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE 
ABSTRACT
This research work will attempt to
investigate the effects family background on the academic performance of pupil
of Social Studies in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The background of the study is
discussed, problems clearly stated, the purpose and relevance of the study also
examined.  Four research questions were
formulated.
Five primary schools were used for
the study while a total number of (100) hundred pupils were used in the five
schools selected.  Their teachers were
also used.  Information gathering was
done through the pupils self assessment questionnaires (SSAQ) and teachers self
assessment questionnaires (TSAQ) administered from the respondents of the
administered questionnaire that, children from educated and well – to – do
families perform very well in the school. 
Whereas those from illiterate and poor family background find it
difficult to cope properly and do not really perform well.
Hopefully, the study would contribute
meaningful to the clear understanding of the family background of students and
its impact on their academic performance in school.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                              
Certification                                                                         
Dedication                                                                            
Acknowledgement                                                               
Abstract                                                                                
Table of Contents                                                                            
CHAPTER ONE
1.1     Introduction                                                                           
1.2     Background
of the study                                                        
1.3     Statement
of the Problem                                                       
1.4     Purpose
of the study                                                   
1.5     Research
Questions                                                      
1.6     Research
Hypothesis                                                    
1.7     Significance
of the study                                                    
1.8     Delimitation/Scope
of the study                                             
1.9     Definitions
of Terms                                                     
CHAPTER TWO
2.1           
Literature
Review                                                         
2.2           
Family
Background and Academic                               
2.3           
Parental
Education and its Effect                                  
2.4           
Parental
Occupation and Status                                            
2.5           
Parental
Income and its Effect                                      
2.6           
Family
Size and its Effects                                            
2.7           
Effect
of Divorce on Academic                                               
2.8           
Feeling
of insecurity at Home                                       
2.9           
Parental
Attitudes, Health Condition                                    
CHAPTER THREE
3.1           
Research
Methodology                                                
3.2           
Research
Design                                                           
3.3           
Population
of the study                                                
3.4           
Sampling
and Sampling Techniques                             
3.5           
Research
Instruments                                                   
3.6           
Validity
of the Research                                               
3.7           
Reliability
of the Research                                           
3.8           
Administration
of the instrument                                
3.9           
Data
Collection                                                             
3.10       Data Analysis                                                               
3.11       Questionnaire                                                               
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1           
Result
and Discussion                                                  
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1           
Summary
                                                                    
5.2           
Conclusion
                                                                   
5.3           
Recommendation                                                          
REFERENCES                                                                     



CHAPTER ONE
1.1           
Introduction
Like in any
society in the world of large, there seems to be the foundational causes of
either success or failure in chosen carrier which span itself from the
immediate family background of the individuals concerned.  So riches is the word of God.  The Holy bible which says in proverb 22:6
(RSV) “Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not
depart from it”.  From the going we can
infer that, it is what a man has he can give. 
No wonder, why some elites and Professionals in the society ensure that
their children take after their professional callings by importing such
knowledge into them from their early life.
1.2           
Background to the study
As social
inequality can not be ruled out in any society completely, the family
background of an individual determine the class to which he belongs in life
straggliest.  This social stratification
has effects on the educational performance of pupils of social studies in
schools.
Investigation
has revealed that pupils from low family background/pupils whose parents were
in manual occupation/achieved at school and intelligence tests than pupils from
middle class backgrounds due to the effects on their capacity to take advantage
of schooling.  This similar condition is
noted among pupils whose father were in skilled manual work or pupils from
families in clerical or other lower, middle class occupations who perform less
than those from professional and managerial background.
The most
obvious influence of family background is the materials advantage associated
with poverty, poor health and nutrition. 
Poverty and inadequate care brings about feelings of insecurity,
improvised living condition of pupil. 
This poverty may be due to low income earning which effect determines
the life style of an individual.  Such
parents with low income are deprived of some basic needs of life such as good
habitation and good health care. 
Students from such homes are culturally and mostly academically deprived
because the home foundation was not strong.
Douglas
(1964) state that family background of pupils has effect on their academic and
social performances in schools it is argued further that student from upper
class home perform relatively better than those from working class home.
Thense Ktwon
(1984) is of the opinion that this differences arises form the fact that family
background, environmental factor and the genetic traits against which
intellectual and social abilities develop are different.  The annual income of parents their
educational and social status, their professionals and position within the
society enhance or hinder their children’s education performance in social
studies.
Accord to
E.I. Wilkin (1970), family background of students largely influence their
academic performance in social studies. 
Sociologist have the belief that the social class which one belongs to
large extent determines the type of education to be given to their children
house hold duties.
1.3           
Statement of the Problem
The problem
proposed for this study, is to know the effects of family background on
students academic performance in social studies.  The problems are as follows.
It has been
observed from primary school pupils that academic performance in the recent
time, that many fail for one reason or the other and while some have high
grades, other pass with low grades.  This
is due to inequality in student background.
It has also
been observed that there are disparities in pupil level of interactions which
could be attributed to their so call background.
Also observed
that there was an inability of some pupils to afforded to buy necessary
textbooks on social studies and been unable to participate in excursion, field
trip, because of lack of financial capability to meet financial needs.
Moreover,
some privileged or advantaged pupils continue their education into higher
esteem, they become great achiever and philanthropists while others – who are
disadvantaged or less privileged are at a bottom of the ladder.
The
participation of pupils in clubs and societies is another area of inequality in
the societies some participate in an international and national clubs,
association and societies.  Some pupils
mix freely with others, while some are shy and lonely.  The peer group influence is based on home
background.
Therefore,
since homes situation depends on the family background of parent which is
determined by their level of education, occupation, income, life style, rearing
attitude of mothers and altitude of life. 
It can be indisputable sand that the family background contribute to the
success or failure of pupils in social studies.
1.4           
Purpose of the study
The study
examined the effects of family background on academic performances in social
studies.
The
researcher was of the opinion that the knowledge of pupils family vis-à-vis
their academic performances in social studies in Ikere Local Government might
help teachers, guidance and counselors, principals curriculum planners and the
government to be aware of some of the societal setbacks and find solution to
them.  it is also hoped that the outcome
of the study will be an eye opener to the parents so as to understand their
deficiencies, the case and care for them.
1.5           
Research Questions
For the purpose of this research work
the foll0wing research questions have be generated.
i.                  
Does
parental attitude have any effect on the academic of their children in social
studies.
ii.                
Does
the occupation of parent affect the academic performance of their children?
iii.             
Do
pupils from high socio – economic background perform better than those from low
socio – economic background.
iv.             
Does
the size of the family has any effect on the academic performance of pupils?
1.6           
Hypothesis
i.                  
There
is no significance effect of the parental attitude on the academic of their
children in social studies.
ii.                
There
is no significance effect of the parent occupation on the academic performance
of their children.
iii.             
There
is no significance effect of the parent from high socio – economic background
and those from low socio – economic background and those from low socio –
economic background on the performance of their children.
iv.             
There
is no significance effect of the size of the family on the academic performance
of their children.
1.7           
Significance of the study
It is
generally hoped and believed that the solutions put forwarding the study would
make great contributions to societies knowledge of educational phenomenal.  It would be extremely useful to the teachers
especially social studies teachers.
It is
expected that the findings will assist the parents guiding and school
administration.  It could be a guide to
curriculum planners and for virtually all organization that have relevance to
students welfare.
1.8           
Delimitation
The
investigation was conducted in Ikere town and Ayede village in Ikere Local
Government Area in Ekiti
State.  It involved five primary schools namely:
1)               
St. Luke
Primary School
, Ikere
2)               
 St. Silas
Primary School, Ikere
3)               
L.A. Uro
Primary School
, Ikere
4)               
L.A. Aafin
Primary School
, Ikere
5)               
Community Primary
School
, Agbado/Oyo, Ikere
1.9           
Definition of Terms
FAMILY BACKGROUND: The home is the expository forum
for the child.  It determines ones
attitudes, educational quality, morality rate, socio care, health care etc. At
home, the child is exposed to informal education.  There is relationship among the members of
the family.  One cannot live in isolation
of the others.  Parental/family
background may mean one or two things, it may refer to national or hereditary
factors.
The parents
have their legitimate roles to play for the upbringing of all family members
and such roles include among others, feeling, protection, education, health
care and social needs of the family for the purpose of this study, the family
background of the students will be viewed as an influential factors in
determining the academic performance of pupils in social studies.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This is based on the classroom
performance of pupils in recorded tests, and examinations.
SOCIO – ECONOMIC STATUS: The social and economic position of
an individual or a family in any given society is determined largely and
educational occupation, income and criteria for social class.
STATUS: This refers to the prestige or
esteem that a person commands.  For
example, a pastor in Church has a higher status than an ordinary Church member.
LOW SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS: This means parents that are poor and they cannot
make both ends meet.  They cannot afford
to buy some electrical gadgets due to their low level of income and their low
level of education.
INEQUALITY: This means an uneven distribution
of materials and other power such as academic achievement.
SOCIAL BACKGROUND: This means all influencing factors
in the home such as cultural, materials and economic, motivational and
emotional factors and parental altitudes. 
The term is used in the present study to refer to the level of income
and education of respondents.
HIGH SOCIO – ECONOMIC STATUS: This mean parent that are affluent
and are well to do.  They have high
social and economic position and socially oriented.  They can afford to buy some electrical
gadgets in their homes e.g. Television set, Computer, Radio sets and Telephone.



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