EFFECT OF DISCOVERY, DISCUSSION AND CONVENTIONAL LECTURE METHODS ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN BIOLOGY

EFFECT OF DISCOVERY, DISCUSSION AND CONVENTIONAL LECTURE METHODS ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN BIOLOGY
TABLES
OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                       
Approval page…                                                                              
Dedication                                                                                   
Acknowledgement…                                                                          
Table of Content…                                                                         
Abstract                                                                                       
CHAPTER
ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1            
Background to the Study…                                                                   
1.2            
Statement of the Problems…                                                         
1.3            
Research Questions…                                                                
1.4            
Purpose of study                                                                     
1.5            
Significant of the Study…                                                         
1.6            
Definition of Terms…                                                               
CHAPTER
TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1     Students
performance in Biology
                                    
2.2     Meaning  of discovery                                                                    10
2.3     Advantages
of Discovery method
                                   
2.4     Disadvantages
of Discovery method
                                 
2.5     Fostering
effective classroom discussion
                              
6     Strategies
for fostering Effective Classroom Discussion …         
2.7     Key
points in conducting classroom Discussions …             
2.8     Discussion
Techniques
                                               
Research
findings concerning the use of Discussion as a learning tool …            
2.10   How
to ask effective classroom questions …                              
2.11   Conventional
lecture method
                                                              1
CHAPTER
THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.2       Research
Methodology                                                              
3.3       Research
Design …                                                                    
3.4       Population
of the Study                                                             
3.5       Sampling
Procedure                                                                    
3.6       Research
Procedure                                                                   
3.7       Data
Collection                                                                       
3.8       Data
Analysis                                                                          
CHAPTER
FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0       Presentation
of Results                                                              
4.1       Discussion
of Findings                                                               
4.2       Summary
of Findings …                                                            
CHAPTER
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Summary                                                                              
5.2       Recommendations…                                                                  
5.3       Conclusions…                                                                         
5.4       Suggestions
for further findings…                                                            31
References                                                                                
Questionnaire…                                                                              

ABSTRACT

          This
study investigated the effects of three instructional methods on students
learning outcomes in selected Biology skills in order to find out the most
effective method of teaching Biology skills.
          The
results of the study revealed that Discovery method was the best method even
than those students in Discussion and conventional lecture method. The findings
also revealed that conventional lecture method was the least effective.
          Based
on the above findings, the following recommendations were made: Discovery
method should be adopted as effective method of teaching Biology skills at
Senior Secondary Schools level. Although Discussion method was effective but it
should not be used as sole method.


CHAPTER
ONE
BACKGROUND
TO THE STUDY
Since the Nations Independence in 1960, up through
1985, when the implementation of the two tier 3 -3 secondary education began
nationwide, secondary science education was either a five-year course in the
Grade II Teachers’ College depending on the candidate entry qualification
influenced by the worldwide wave of sciences curriculum reforms and in
recognition of the changing in needs of the Nigerian pupils, the science
teachers’ Association of Nigeria (STAN) in response to the West African
Examination Councils (WAEC) invitation in 1968, spearheaded the curriculum
reform movement for the Nigerian schools science.
          Consequently,
subject panels were set up which developed curricular in Physics, Chemistry and
Biology for the Senior Secondary Classes and later in integrated science for
Junior classes. Other notable curriculum agent include the comparative
Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) which is now part of the National
Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) etc were sponsors of
conferences whose combined effort culminated in the development and the
production of the pupils textbooks, workbooks and teacher’s guild of the
Nigerian integrated science project (NISP) by STAN.
          It
is necessary for any teacher of Biology to become familiar with teaching
methods that will help students to achieve their learning objectives. There are
many methods that Biology teachers can use to ensure effective learning.
However teaching methods tells little concerning the value or success of the
learning procedure in any particular class; this is because many factors
contribute to good teaching among which are the teachers personality,
reinforcement and the choice of materials.
          Seweje
and Jegede (2005) listed some methods that are commonly used for teaching in
secondary schools which are: Traditional lecture methods, Demonstration,
Discussion, investigating or laboratory, Team teaching, Playway, Discovery,
Field trip methods.
          There
are many subjects taught in secondary school, each of those subjects has its
own methodology which must be applied in order to achieve maximum success in
teaching –learning situation, Biology is not an exception in this case. Hence
this study deals with the effectiveness of Discovery, Discussion and
Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in  Biology.
          Biology
is rated to be important among other science subjects, it is the science
subject option of many students in order to satisfy the registration
requirement at the senior school Certificate Examination (SSCE). As such,
Biology attracts a large number of students, hence its popularity among
students.
          Though
the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP) and NSSP of CESC and STAN
recommended the guided inquiry approach in which the teacher only act as mere
facilitator, while the students undergo continuous experience in science
process skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, communicating, asking
questions.
          Based
on the popularity and the claim by student that Biology is the easiest of the
science subjects, one would expect better performance in it but the reverse is
the case (Adeyemi, 1987, Duyilemi 1998) from observation, performance in
Biology is the poorest when compared to other science-subjects, even from the
researchers personal experience, it was discover that students performed far
below expectation despite all effort put into the teaching of the subject.
          The
poor academic performance of Biology students has been partly blamed on the
poor methodology of teaching; it is one thing to possess the knowledge and
another to transmit that knowledge to the students. The national policy on
Education (2004), advocated that teachers should be provided with sufficient
intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment.
          Educational
system had translated this to mean that teachers should not have only sound
knowledge of the subject matter of their disciplines but also formally trained
in the act of teaching, any teacher that does not fall into this category had
always been tagged unqualified and had always been held responsible for poor academic
performance of students.
          Poor
teaching methods, Abudlahi (2002) and Ogunniyi (1986) asserted, is the major
cause of poor performance in the sciences Akinyele (1980) submitted that no
single method is the best for science teaching generally or for Biology.
          The
major aim of science teaching is to promote understanding to the concepts being
taught with a view to fulfilling the objectives of the curriculum. The
consistence poor performance and negative attitudes of students towards science
attest to the fact that science teaching has not been properly done.
          Despite
the recommendation made relative to the improvement, students’ performance in
the science especially Biology is still very poor, the question is, how can the
teaching and learning of Biology be improved so as to equip the learners with
the right scientific knowledge and skills to enable them improve their
performance and also function effectively in a scientific and technological
world?
          Teachers
should approach instruction systematically and purposefully by planning the
instruction so that it forms a distinct bridge between what they want to teach
and whom they want to teach.
STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM
          Many
reports have shown the poor performance of secondary school  students in Biology examinations. There are
many reasons associated with this; despite the fact that teaching environment
is conducive students are still performing very poorly in Biology Examination,
in respect to these, it is likely to be problem of method of teaching in Biology.
Based on this background of the study aims to investigate the effects of Discovery,
Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology.
RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this
study, the following research question will be considered.
1.                
Would there be any significant
difference in the pre-test and post-test scores of students exposed to
discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in
Biology?
2.                
Would there be any significant
difference in the post-test achievement mean scores of students exposed to
Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in
Biology?
3.                
Would there be any significant
difference in the post test achievement among male and female students exposed
to Discovery, Discussion and conventional lecture methods on learning outcome
in Biology?
4.                
Would there be any significant
difference among the scores of science and non-science students exposed to
Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning out come in
Biology.
5.                
Would there be any significant
difference in the post-test achievement of students exposed to Discovery,
Discussion and Convectional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology?
PURPOSE
OF THE STUDY
          The
purpose of the study was to investigate effectiveness of Discovery, Discussion
and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology, and to find
out the most effective method of teaching in Biology.
 FOR COMPLETE PROJECT, CALL 07064961036
SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY
          The
study would reveal the importance of instructional methods as a key
determinants of students’ achievement towards learning methods in Biology,
there is no specific method of teaching but this study would reveal the most
effective method of teaching in Biology, to the society and parents, it would
enable the students to achieve dual purpose of Education and it is to prepare
individual to develop their own potentials to students. It would increase the
level of their performance.
          The
findings would enable science teachers to use the most appropriate and most
effective methods of teaching in Biology thereby improving students’
performance in Biology Examination.
DEFINITION
OF TERMS
1.     Discovery
method – Discovery refers to all forms of acquisition of knowledge through the
use of findings of origin or use of mental process
2.     Discussion
method: This is an oral exploration of topic, object, concept or experience
3.     Conventional
Lecture Method: This is a group teaching which require large number of people
4.     Urban
School: These are schools that are established by the Government Headquarters
5.     Student
Learning Outcome: This is the Student’s achievement in the standardized
researchers constructed test

 FOR COMPLETE PROJECT, CALL 07064961036
online payment nigeria HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

STEP 1

Complete Project Price: ₦3,000 (We accept mobile tranfer)

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here

Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

STEP 2.

Send Your Details and Project topic To us by filling this form.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*


+ 78 = 85