EFFECT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOES IN EKITI STATE

EFFECT OF COMPUTER
BASED LEARNING ON STUDENT’S
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE

Cover page                                                                                    
Title page                                                                                        
Certification                                                                                     
Approval page                                                                                 
Dedication                                                                                       
Acknowledgements                                                                        
Table of contents                                                                             
Abstract                                                                                           
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                                                           
Statement of the Problem                                                                           
Purpose of the study                                                                         
Research Question                                                                            
Research Hypothesis                                                                        
Significance of the study                                                                  
Scope of the study                                                                                      
CHAPTER
TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Studies on students’ performance in science                                              
Studies on use of computer learning strategies                                 
Studies on difficult subject among students                                               
Causes of these difficult topic integrated science                                        
ICT and science learning                                                                            
Theoretical framework of the study                                                  
Theory of anchored instruction                                                                  
Cognitive apprenticeship theory                                                                                       
Review of related empirical studies                                                  
CHAPTER
THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                               
Population of study                                                                                   
Sample and sampling techniques                                                      
Data collection                                                                                  
Validation of the instrument                                                             
Reliability of the instrument                                                             
Administration of the instrument                                                               
Data analysis                                                                                    
CHAPTER
FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
           
Data analysis                                                                                    
Socio demographic characteristics                                                    
Analysis of hypothesis                                                                     
  CHAPTER
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                          
Conclusion                                                                                                 
Recommendation                                                                                       
Suggestions for further research                                                                 
Reference                                                                                          
Appendix                                                                                         
 
ABSTRACT
The study is aimed at investigating the effect of computer
based learning on students academic performance in integrated science.
To
carry out the study, three  research
questions were   reviewed in line with
the purpose of the study. three hypotheses  were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level
of significance. The design of the study was quasi-experimental design
consisting of pre-test, post-test statistics were used the population of the
study consisted of all students in secondary schools class one in Ikere Ekiti.
80 students were randomly sampled from 
four secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti. Two schools consisted the sample
for the experimental group while the remaining two schools were used for the
control groups. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and
inferential statistics such as mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANCOVA. The
findings shows that: students taught integrated science with computer based
learning (CBL) performed significantly better that their counterpart. Gender
had no significant influence on students performance. Based on the findings,
the results further revealed that the use of CBL made the teaching and learning
of integrated science meaningful. Recommendation were made which include, t
he
Government should make effort in revisiting the curriculum with a view of
incorporating the use of computer assisted instruction in teaching Integrated
Science. The teachers should be trained to be computer literate. There should
be adequate funding and provision of computers in our
secondary
schools for use in the teaching and learning process. And Teachers of
Integrated Science    should be engaged in seminars and computer
literacy workshops to keep them up to date of computer and its application in teaching. 
CHAPTER  I
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Nigeria  is becoming more sophisticated
technologically. The industrial age gave way to information age, an info-tech
era which is as vital as the water we drink because this has brought positive
changes to the society, business, education and other facets of human life. In
fact, the educational sector is not exempted from the benefit of participation
in an information-rich computerized society. To keep to date with the emerging
technological changes at the national, regional and global environments, our
present educational system is continuously upgrading its resources through the
modernization of the various elements of the system. Modernization can be
pursed through the introduction of modern instructional aides and materials
such as multimedia gadgets like computers, CD-ROM, TV, internet among others
(Caday, 2004). Linn (2003) stated that information and communication technology
had had a convoluted but ultimately advantageous impact on science teaching.
Computers
offer exciting approaches to teaching that were not even dreamt of two decades
ago, but the extent to which the educational potential of computer technology
will be realized remains to be seen (Amara, 2006). Computer technology has
caught the attention of many researchers and educators and computer-based instructional
applications are considered effective alternative to traditional teaching
method (Yushau, 2006). Research findings explicitly reported that science
education and computer technology had created a meaningful partnership over the
century (Flick & Bell, 2000). Thomas (2001) argued that very little was
known about the use of computer in science classrooms and its effects on
students learning. It is obvious that the current trends in research all over
the world involve the use of computer facilities and resources to enhance
students learning. This may be the reason why Handelsman, Ebert-May, Beichner,
Bruns, Chang, Detloan, Gentile, Lauffer, Stewart, Tilghman and Wood (2004: 521)
opined that “many exercises that depart from traditional method are now readily
accessible on the web”, even though teachers did not use these facilities. They
further showed that the interactive approaches to teaching significantly
enhanced learning. Computer and Science are inseparable transformational tool
for increased productivity, income generation and security awareness.
If the traditional methods are thought to be insufficient in
educatingan individual who is supposed to have the contemporary skills, one of
themost effective ways is taking advantage of instruction technologies,especially
the computers (Altun, Uysal and
Ünal, 1999; Yigit and Akdeniz,2000). Particularly, reasons like the un proportional change
of the students and the teachers’ numbers, complexification of content due to
the dataquantity, some applications’ importance that show the individual
differencesdirect people to benefit from the computers in education ( Alkan,
1998;
Usun,
2000).
With the use computers in education, a
lot of terms have come into and gone out of use in education (Owusu, Monney,
Appiah, & Wilmot,2010). The overlapping terms related to the uses of
computer and associated technologies in science education are categorized into
three by Bybee, Poewll, & Trowbridge (2008) as follows: learning about
computers, learning with computers and learning through computers.
Big impact is placed on the
computer-based science and education as well as ordinary science laboratories
in the educational curricula in the world. One of the aims of the science and
technology course is to train individuals capable of keeping up the fast
developing and changing science world and capable of utilizing the recent
technological discoveries in every field. As a result of the rapid development
of the information and communication technology, the use of computers in
education has become inevitable. The use of technology in education provides
the students with a more suitable environment to learn, serves to create
interest and a learning centered-atmosphere, and helps increase the students’
motivation. The use of technology in this way plays an important role in the
teaching and learning
process (Isman, Baytekin, Balkan,
Horzum, &Kiyici, 2002). Liao (2007)
found
out that CBI had a positive effect on individuals by comparing 52 research
studies carried out in Taiwan in his meta-analysis study.. According to Alessi &
Trollip (2005), it is possible to divide educational software into five
different types such as tutorial, drill and practice, simulation, educational
games and hypermedia type. For effective and productive teaching, these
techniques should be used with some classroom activities.
These are: presentation, demonstration,
practice and evaluation of learning (Özmen, 2004). The use of computer
technology enables learners be active in the learning process, to construct
knowledge, to develop problem solving skills and to discover alternative
solutions (Özmen, 2008). The computer-based Instruction makes teaching
techniques far more effective than those of the traditional teaching methods as
it is used for presenting information, testing and evaluation and providing
feedback. It makes a contribution to the individualization of education. It
motivates students and gets them to take an active part in the learning
process. It helps to develop creativity and problem solving skills, identity
and self-reliance in learners. CBI provides drawings, graphics, animation,
music and plenty materials for the students to proceed at their own pace and in
line with their individual differences. It serves to control lots of variables
having an impact on learning, which cannot be controlled by means of
traditional educational
techniques (Kaili, 2000; Chang, 2002).
Due to the role of new and modern
technologies in today’s world, many various opportunities can becreated for the
process of education ubiquitously emphasizing on the training of teacher-based
affairs totransfer on the student. The main purpose is how these approaches can
make the process of learning towards the students effectively and how they can
adjust their tasks based on the same issues through interacting along with
facilitator instruments going towards the educational progression. The
combination of technology in lesson plan is one of the most modern approaches
for implementing the educationaltargets. In many countries the information
technology and communications has the highest importance asa strategic case for
supporting the coaches in learning planning and designing processes Zakeri,
A.(2001).The appearance of computer and Internet has also the highest
significant on the educational systems. One of these important ways can be
subjected to the change of teachers’ role and learning approaches and navigations
Seif, A.A. (2008). The world is rapidly changing facing with traditional
learning methods with information of overcoming ability Krasely, G. (2004).Seif
believes that in traditional educational planning or teacher-based educational
activities and students play key role in this regard and the educational
purposes are clearly specified in educational planning . Hiromi (2002) gives a
new framework of this interaction bymentioning the interactions levels in
relation to the traditional educational system including the interactions of
students-students Abedi, J. (1993], students-teachers and content-student in a
computer-based environment.
Statement
of the Problem
The problem of poor performance in
Nigeria today has been a source of worry to parents, policy makers, examination
bodies, teachers and the nation as a whole. Efforts have been made by  Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria and
individuals to avert this situation but they seem not to have yielded the
desired results.
Research findings have shown that several factors militate
against improved and effective academic achievement of our students in
integrated science  and other Science
subjects. These include the application of wrong and. ineffective instructional
strategies in our schools. The above has hinder students from acquiring  Science Process Skills that will enable them comprehend
 scientific concepts in order to excel
in  examinations, thereby limiting their
ability to live self reliant lives in the society after graduation from
secondary school.
The problem of this study therefore is
aimed at investigating the effect of computer based learning on students
academic performance in integrated science among junior secondary in Ekiti
State.
Purpose
of the study
The purpose
of this study is to find out
effect of computer based
learning on students academic performance in integrated science among junior
secondary in Ekiti State.
Specifically, the study investigated
1.    
If
computer based learning instruction have effect on  students academic performance in in
Integrated science
2.    
The
influence of students gender on students 
academic performance using computer based learning in Integrated
Science.
3.    
The
 influence of school location have any
significant  influence on students
academic performance using computer based learning instruction
Research
Questions
The following research
questions directed this study
1.    
Does  Computer based learning instruction have
effect on  students academic performance
in in Integrated science?
2.    
What
influence will students gender have on academic performance using computer
based learning instruction in Integrated Science?
3.    
Would
school location have any significant 
influence on students academic performance using computer based learning
instruction?
Research hypothesis
The
following null hypothesis were tested
Ho­1
There is no significant difference in the academic performance of integrated
students exposed to computer based learning instruction and their counterparts
not exposed.
Ho2  There is no significant different in the
academic performance of male students exposed to computer based learning and
their female counterparts
Ho3    There is no significant in the
academic of integrated science students in urban location exposed to computer
based learning and their rural counterparts
Significance
of the study
The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized as many
researchers in the fields have made useful observations towards its impacts on
the fields of education and other human endeavour. Hung, (2007) asserts that
the use of computer has improved students’ writing skills
The diffusion and use of computer in education is very important
because it will lead to improvement in teaching and learning process. In
developing nations, ICTs have brought a technological reduction whose
utilizations and production have been somewhat limited but whose potentials
diffusion hold a great promise in accelerating the performances of both the
teachers and students in our educational system.
Scope
of the study
The study is aimed at investigating the effect of computer assisted
learning on students academic performance in integrated science. The study cover
five selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti state



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