EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE, NIGERIA.

EFFECT
OF CLASS SIZE ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN JUNIOR
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE, NIGERIA.

 

ABSTRACT
This project analyzed
the effect of class-size on the quality of academic output of integrated
science students in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of  Ekiti State, Nigeria. A sample of five schools was used through stratified random sampling technique. Data
were collected through the use of a well-structured questionnaire and were
analyzed with the
use of frequency
tables and percentages.
The findings revealed that schools having an
average class-size of 35students and below obtained better results in the Junior
Secondary Certificate (JSSCE) examinations than schools having more than 35
students per class. The mean scores were higher in schools having an average
class-size of 35 and below. It was therefore recommended that Government should
provide more classrooms in all secondary schools in the State to cater for
small class-sizes.

CHAPTER
ONE
          INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
As school population
increases, class sizes also increase, the performances of students become an
issue. According to Dror (2005), class size has become a phenomenon often
mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and
achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted,
that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have
little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of
the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of
students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that
under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor.
          Class size refers to an educational
tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a
school (Adeyemi, 2008). This varies from country to country.
Kedney (2009)
saw it as a tool that can be used to measure the performance of the education
system. In relation to size,
Stepaniuk
(2000)
reported
that the rational utilization of classroom space depends upon class-size. This
in turn would depend upon the area of the classroom. He argued that there are

approved
norms of class-size, 40 pupils per class for grades 1 to 8 and 35 pupils per
class for the senior
classes; while the standard allocation
of class space per
pupil is 1:25 square metres. In this
regard, Dean (2004)
compared class-size in some countries
and found that
Turkey, Norway and Netherlands had
class-sizes of 20
more; the UK, USA, Japan, Canada and
Ireland had
class-sizes of between 15 and 20 while France,
Sweden,
Denmark,
Austria, Italy, Luxembourg and Belgium had
sizes of below 15.
          In
Nigeria, however, Okoro (2005) reported that the
class-size in
secondary schools ranges between 35 or40 students. He argued that few pupils
per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space,
teachers
and teaching materials.

Adeyemi
(2008) too,
reported
that average class-size influences the cost of
education while capital cost could be
reduced by
increasing
the average class-size in schools while
Nwadiani
(2000)

argued that the higher the class-size, the
lower the cost of education. He
contended however,

that
most classrooms are over-crowded spreading
resources thinly and thereby affecting
the quality of
education.
Ajayi (2000) supported the viewpoints and
argued that in order to control rising
capital cost of
education,
the average class-size could be increased.
These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002)
who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has
become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class
size. Commeyras (2000)
however, disagreed with these

arguments
and reported that effective teaching seems
impracticable for teacher educators
having large class

sizes
of 50, 75, 100 or more.

In
terms of outcomes, Schultz (2003) classified the
outcomes of education into two
categories from the

economic
point of view. These are consumption and
investment. Cohn (2005) referred to the
consumption
aspect
as that related to benefits derived by students.
He regarded the investment component as
including a
variety
of outputs related to the enhancement of an
individual’s or society’s productive
skills. Thus, Blaug (2003) argued that the extension of education tends to
raise the earnings of those who benefited from it. In this
regard, Simkins (2001)
reported that output “represents the
immediate results of the system’s
activities.” According

to
him, “the main outputs in education are expressed in
terms of learning, that
is, changes in the knowledge,

skills
and attitudes of individuals as a result of their
experiences within the educational
system.” He argued

that
the educational system is a productive system in
the very sense that it produces outputs
especially
various
forms of learning. He expressed that the
components of the system could be represented
in a
model viz:
 Input       Process
        Output. Explaining the
model, he alleged that
the various inputs are processed

in
the production of outputs.
Examinations
in Nigerian schools dated back to the
advent of formal education. Since then examinations
have

occupied a central place in the
Nigerian educational
system .According to him, examination has been “the
sole criterion of quality” in Nigeria
and “once a higher
percentage of the pupils pass their external examinations,
the school is considered to be of a
high quality.” The importance of examinations in Nigeria even extended

beyond this point. This importance as
entrenched in
the
Federal Government of Nigeria National Policy of
Education was in the fact that all
secondary schools
should gear their programmes to meet the requirements of
model, he alleged that the various
inputs are processed examinations being conducted for the School Certificate.

Toward this end, Fafunwa (2014) argued
that “it is an educational truism that examinations control the curriculum and
whoever controls a country’s examination system controls its education.”
          The
WAEC/JSSCE Ordinance emphasized the
importance
of standards in its examinations. According
to
the Ordinance, standards must be such that the
certificates
awarded on the basis of performance in the
examinations
shall not represent a lower standard of
attainment
when compared with equivalent certificates
of
other examining authorities. These examining
authorities
were the Cambridge and London Universities
Examinations
Boards for the WASC and GCE

examinations respectively. Although the
SSC examination
has replaced the WASC and GCE
examinations in Nigeria

it still uses the GCE ‘O’ & ‘A’
level standards as its norms

since it was pitched between the ‘O’
& ‘A’ level
standards. The pattern of grading
candidates’ score

in the examinations was such that the
distinctions
grade was represented by A1 to B3. The
credit grade was

represented by C4 to C6. The ordinary
pass grade was
represented by D7 and E8 while the
failure grade was

represented by F9. It needs to be
mentioned however,

that the distinction and credit grades
are the only
requisite qualifications for admissions
into universities

in Nigeria and candidates must have at
least five credits

in five subjects including English
Language in order to

qualify for admission .The foregoing
review has
shown that class-size is a
controversial educational

tool that has varied from one country
to another. Thus,

this study was embarked upon to
determine the effect of class-size on the quality of output of integrated
Science students from junior secondary
schools
in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Statement
of the Problem
It has been observed
that junior secondary schools in Ekiti State appear to be densely populated
while classrooms seem to be over-congested. It has shown the views of previous
researchers on class-size in various countries. In view of the divergent
opinions, the problem of this study was to determine what effect class-size had
on the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools
in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.  
This situation seems to be impairing effective teaching and learning
process in the junior secondary schools in the state and hence the reason for
embarking on this project.
Purpose of the Study
The broad objective of the research project is to examine the
relationship that exists between class size and academic achievement of Integrated
Science students in junior secondary schools in Ekiti State.
       The specific
objectives are;
1.    To examine the effect of class size on the
academic performance of Integrated Science students in junior secondary schools
in Ekiti.
2     To examine how negative effects of class
size on academic performance of Integrated Science students in junior secondary
schools in Ekiti could be brought to minimal.
3    To examine how quality class size helps in
improving the efficiency and Effectiveness of teaching and learning of Integrated
Science in junior secondary schools in Ekiti.
Research
Questions
The research seeks to answer the
following questions that affect the effective teaching and learning of Integrated
Science in Ekiti State to guide the study.
(1)  “Is
there any significant difference in the achievement in Integrated Science for junior
secondary school students in small and large sized classes?
(2)   Is there any interaction effect between
location of school and class size in the achievement in Integrated Science for junior
secondary school students in small and large sized classes? ”
(3)   Is there any significant difference between
the quality of output of students in schools having an average small
class-sizes and the quality of output of students in schools having an average
large class-sizes in the JSSCE examinations in the State?
(4)  What
is the impact of class size on Integrated Science teachers’ productivity in junior
secondary schools in Ekiti State?
Research Hypotheses
The following null
hypothetical statements are made with respect to the objectives of the study.
       i.           
“There is no
significant difference between the achievement of students in Integrated
Science in small and large sized classes of junior secondary schools.
     ii.           
 There is no interaction effect of School
location and class size in students’ achievement in junior secondary school Integrated
Science.
  1. There is no
    significant difference between the quality of output of students in
    schools having an
    average
    class-size of 35 students and below and the quality of output of students
    in schools having an average class-size of above 35 students in JSSCE
    examinations in Ekiti State, Nigeria
    .
  2. There is no
    significant relationship between class size and teachers’ productivity.
Delimitation
of the Study
      
The study is specifically talking about the Correlation between the
class size and the teaching and learning efficiency of Integrated Science Students
in Ekiti State. The study will concentrate on the effects of class size on the
teaching and learning of Integrated Science in (5) Junior Secondary Schools in
Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State.
Significance
of the Study
          The
Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex.  But the catalogue of sources shows that
Nigerian secondary school class is over congested and thereby leads to a
decline in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science.  Experience has shown that class size is a
major contributing factor to the assumed teachers’ Ineffectiveness in many junior
secondary schools in the State. For instance, in the recent years, Nigeria has
witnessed rapid educational expansion especially at the junior secondary school
level without corresponding increase in the provision of essential facilities
and this has resulted into large school size and eventually large class size;
with its attendant problems of lack of facilities for teachers and also lack of
good classroom management by the teachers. For instance, it has been observed
that students may be too difficult to control by teachers in many of the large
classes due to over congestion of students in these classes. Experience has
also shown that teachers tend to lose the ability to attain or establish
effective teaching in the overcrowded class than small class and this problem
of large class size in secondary schools has been attributed to several
factors, such as the introduction of too many subjects on junior secondary school
time-table, which invariably has given birth to accommodation of all the
subjects on the school time-table couple with the shortage of qualified
teaching personnel to teach these subjects.
          Based on
this, the research work contains the researcher’s contributions that would be
of help and useful to education policy planners, Educationist, Ministry of
Education authorities, Stakeholders, school administrations and management in junior
schools towards helping  students to
improve the quality of facilities in the education system.
Apart from the above,
the research will provide valuable information on the influence of different
interacting factors on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning
of Integrated Science among junior secondary school students. The content of
the study will also serve as resource materials for others who want to carry
out further research.
Definition of
Terms
The definitions used in the historical
class size debate vary according to the researcher. The following definitions
are ones that will be used in this research.
Class
size
:
Class size is typically defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is
primarily responsible during a school year. The teacher may teach in a
self-contained classroom or provide instruction in one subject (Lewitt &
Baker, 1999). Achilles (2003) gives the following example of class size:
“Average class-size is the sum of all students regularly in each teacher’s
class divided by the actual number of regular teachers in those specific
classes. Regardless of the definition one uses, class size has been difficult
to measure due to the dynamic nature of classrooms (adults and students move in
and out of classrooms), a variety of classroom models (pull outs, resource
rooms, aides, specialists), and a lack of precise measurements of what occurs
in schools and classrooms (pupil-teacher ratios, pupil-professional ratios,
class size based on the number of students assigned to a given teacher)
(Reichardt, 2000). The lack of a common agreement as to what constitutes a
small class or even an ideal class has made it difficult to compare research
studies.
Operational
definition of class size
:
For the purpose of this study class size was defined as the number of students
for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. A small class
was defined as a class having 11 of fewer students. A large class contained 20
or more pupils.
Pupil-teacher
ratio (also known as teacher-student ratio):

Achilles
(2003) defined pupil-teacher ratio as the number of student in a school or
district compared to the number of teaching professionals. All educators may be
part of the computation, including counselors and administrators. According to
Hanushek (1999), the only data that are consistently available over time
reflect pupil-teacher ratios. Determining class size requires one to decide
which classes to count. For instance, are physical education and driver’s
education included? “Class size is generally best defined in the traditional
elementary school grades, where a single teacher is responsible for a
self-contained classroom, and the definition gets progressively more
problematical as the instructional program becomes more complex” (Hanushek,
1999). Although there is a slight discrepancy among the actual numbers,
pupil-teacher ratio is significantly lower than average class size. The
difference nationally between class size and pupil-teacher ratio is about 10
pupils (Achilles, 2003).
Class
size reduction
: Class size
reduction is the processes to achieve class sizes smaller than the ones
currently in place (Achilles, 2003).
JSSCE:
The
Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) refers to student
academic assessments final year exam at junior secondary school level.
online payment nigeria HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

STEP 1

Complete Project Price: ₦3,000 (We accept mobile tranfer)

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here

Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

STEP 2.

Send Your Details and Project topic To us by filling this form.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*


87 − = 77