EFFECT OF BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ON STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF TOPICS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKERE-EKITI AS CASE STUDY

EFFECT
OF BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ON STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF TOPICS IN ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY: 
COLLEGE
OF EDUCATION, IKERE-EKITI
AS
CASE STUDY

FOR COMPLETE PROJECT CALL 07064961036

CHAPTER
ONE
Background of the study
          Students enter
the college or university with diverse skills and background knowledge. This
diversity causes heterogeneity that poses challenges for college or university
education, as differences in background knowledge have been shown to influence
the quality of learning and student achievement in a significant manner (Dochy,
2006). Ultimately, the aim of higher education is to promote high-quality
learning which can serve as a sound basis for individuals to build on later in
life. High-quality learning and the factors contributing to it have been
explored from various perspectives and theoretical standpoints over the years.
          Background knowledge and its impact on learning and
performance has been a focus of several studies in recent years. Interest in the
influence of background knowledge is closely related to the constructivist
approach to learning, which has become
dominant in recent decades. Constructivism sees learning
as cognitive activity in which students actively construct knowledge by
interpreting new information in the light of their background knowledge and
existing beliefs (Vygotsky, 2008). Hence, background knowledge in organic
chemistry plays an important role in learning. Indeed, almost all studies on
background knowledge conducted during the past decades have undisputedly shown
that background knowledge is a significant variable influencing student
achievement. As Glaser & De Corte (2004) state: “a key to developing an
integrated and generative knowledge base is to build upon the learner’s background
knowledge”. Dochy (2006) has stated that individual differences in the
background knowledge base are a primary source of differences in student
achievement. Therefore, the influence of background knowledge and the methods
for assessing it should be a concern for educators promoting high-quality
learning. Background knowledge interacts with many phases of learning, such as
the way students are able to construct new knowledge.
Furthermore,
a student with scant background knowledge in organic chemistry is unlikely to
adopt a deep approach to learning, which has been found to be related to higher
quality learning. In addition, difficulties caused by individual differences in
the background knowledge base may result in difficulties in completing courses
or degrees in the college or university.
          However,
Nigeria is a developing nation and the importance of chemistry for such a
nation cannot be over emphasized. This is in line with the assertion that the
prestige and political power of any nation reside in its level of scientific
activities. The United States of American had undertaken reforms in its science
curriculum development which led to Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), Chemical
Education Material Study (CHEM STUDY) and the Physical Science Study Committee
(PSSC) in conjunction with other physical sciences. Similar curricular reforms
had also been carried out in other countries. The successes of these reforms in
Britain and United States are often linked with the curriculum packages that
had evolved. These packages adopted different approaches, and emphasis was laid
on content and how the content could be commensurate with the cognitive level
of the students.
           In Nigeria, the need to re-examine both what
to teach in science and how to teach it led both institutional and professional
bodies to identify themselves with national efforts toward curriculum reform in
sciences.
This curriculum
is developed upon the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, and learning
experiences acquired by students in the Science Curriculum. There is a close
connection between the topics in the Science Curriculum and the Chemistry
Curriculum.
          For
example, the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) had taken
initiative in the science curriculum development. Thus in 2008, the federal
ministry of education and the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre
(CESAC), set up curriculum development committee in each of the following
subjects biology, chemistry and physics. These bodies, including the National
Education and Research Council (NERC) made immense contribution toward
improving science education. All these have not only modernized science
teaching, but stimulated interest among Nigerian youths, science educators and
government in science related courses.
          Thus
the government tried to popularizes and encourage the teaching of sciences in
schools through positive incentives like giving priority to  science courses in scholarship and in-service
awards, building and commissioning of science equipment production centers,
special science allowances to science teachers and the building of universities
of technology, colleges and science schools.
Students are seldom exposed to
practical work, according to Anamuah- Mensah (2009). This lack of practical
activities by chemistry students may have resulted in poor communication and
observational skills. The absence of these skills gave rise to students’ poor
performance in chemistry and organic chemistry in particular. The WAEC chief
examiners’ reports have constantly raised issues of students’ poor performance
in questions under organic chemistry over a decade now. It has often branded
organic questions as unpopular to students and few students who answer
questions perform poorly (WAEC, 2007; WAEC, 2008). Not many studies have looked
at organic chemistry topics difficulty specifically, but studies by Tajudeen
(2005) and Ampiah (2001); have shown that students find organic chemistry
difficult to handle generally. Considering the fact that organic chemistry,
being an important component of the study of chemistry, is broad; this study
sought to investigate the perception of students in organic chemistry topics
difficulty in understanding.
Statement
of the Problem
           This present study
focuses on students’ perception of topics in organic chemistry in college
Curriculum. Researchers have noted that some topics in organic chemistry are
not too easy to understand by students due to its demanding and practical
nature. This topics have the following characteristics: they are hard to
understand by most students; they require more effort and skills before one can
understand and solve/answer them; they exist in college or university syllabus
only; such topics stimulate fear and anxiety on students;
unfamiliarity
with the ideas, confusing language, ideas too demanding, insufficient
explanation and practical work, topics too mathematical and lack of interest
among the students; they consist mostly of practical
topics; they are usually found in college or university level only and these
are usually responsible for the general poor performance in organic chemistry
and if properly taught students will discover that they are not difficult as
they suppose. It is essential that these organic chemistry topics should be
identified so that the way of making them easy for students will be evolved.
The study thus focuses on investigation of the problems highlighted and how to
find appropriate remediation.
Purpose of the
study
          The
general purpose of the study is to investigate students’ perception of topics
in organic chemistry by the students study chemistry in college of Education,
Ikere-Ekiti. Specifically this study sought to:
(i) identify organic chemistry topics in
the  chemistry Curriculum
 (ii) find out factors responsible for the poor
academic performance of students in organic chemistry in the college
 (iii) find out the influence of school
location on the perception of topics in organic chemistry curriculum.
(iv) find the effect of school nature on
students’ perception in organic chemistry concepts.
Significance
of the study
          This study is of great important in
the sense that it will identify the effect of background knowledge on students
perception of topics in organic chemistry in the college of Education,
Ikere-Ekiti. The study offered useful suggestion and recommendations which are
considered capable of helping the curriculum developer.
Research
Questions
The following research questions were
raised in the study
(i) What topics in organic chemistry in
the college or university syllabus do students perceived difficult?
(ii) What responsible for the poor
academic performance of students in organic chemistry in the college?
(iii) Which
organic chemistry topics do lecturers find the most difficult to teach?
 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were
formulated in this study:
1.     There
is no significant difference between students perception in organic  chemistry topics and students performance.
2.     There
is significant difference between student performance in organic chemistry and
factors responsible for their performance.
3.     There
is significant difference between organic chemistry
topics do lecturers find the most difficult to teach
and students
performance.
Scope of the Study
          This research work focuses
on effect of background knowledge on students’ perception of topics in organic
chemistry in the college of Education, Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government
Area of Ekiti State. This research work covers all students study
chemistry in the College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government
Area of Ekiti State.
Definition of
terms
Topic:- is a
particular subject that you write about or discuss.
Knowledge:- is
information and understanding about a subject, which someone has in their mind.
Background
knowledge:- is what somebody already know about a topic before learning more
about it.
Perception:- is
the organization, identification, and interpretation of
sensory
information
in order to represent and understand the environment. Perception is the
recognition of things by using your senses, especially the sense of sight.
Secondary
school:- is a school for students between the ages of 12 and 18.
Curriculum:- was defined by Onwuka
(1981) is the intended learning outcome of the school programme.
Chemistry:-
science that deals with structure and composition of matter.
online payment nigeria HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

CLICK HERE TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Complete Project Price: ₦3,000 (We accept mobile transfer) » Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)
Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here

Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here
STEP 2.
Send Your Details and Project topic To us by filling this form.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*


2 + 6 =