EFFECT OF ALCOHOLISM ON AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT IN NIGERIA, EKITI STATE AS A CASE STUDY

EFFECT OF ALCOHOLISM ON AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT IN NIGERIA, EKITI
STATE AS A CASE STUDY
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Civilization and Technology have made life more comfortable and
meaningful to mankind. In another view, they have provided or created
continuous problems among which are reflected as antipode behaviours that have
become very rampant among driver . As a result, the problems confronting our
societies today have been caused by the total abuse of alcohol. drivers do not
even lag behind in the free use of alcohol regardless of thinking about its
devastating effects.
Alcohol can be classified as a drug which is a chemical substance
that when taken into the body system, can affect the behaviour of the organiam
or the person involved. It has the power to change the functions of cells
organs in the body of any person using it abusively. And the effects of alcohol
abuse have gone to an unfortunate levels, which have permeated every nooks and
crannies of our society, especially in our affluent and teaming urban cities.
In fact, according to Dempsey (200), who puts it that, the
intoxicating substance in these drinks like beer and wine is Alcohol. It is
formed by a process called fermentation, in which tiny Organisn called yeasts
act on natural sugars. Industrially, Alcohol is often made from cereals and
potatoes. It is widely used as a solvent, or dissolving substance, for many
organic chemical like lacquers.
Jackie Esttanda et al. (2001) put it that, alcohol consumption
poses one of the greatest contemporary social problems for the modern world. It
is as old as man’s civilization, while the methods for making alcohol have been
known since before the beginning of recorded history. Raymond (2004) said that
the word alcohol originated from an ancient Arabic term “al-kohl,” which refers
to a finely ground powder used to colour the brows.
Moreover, one cannot do or say anything on alcoholism without
referring to the man Jellinek (1960). He defined Alcoholism any use of
alcoholic beverages that causes any damage to the individual or society or even
both. In the same vein, it is a bad behavioural pattern which indicated the
abusive consumption of alcoholic drinks by any person. But Jellinek beliefs
mainly on the disease concept of Alcoholism. This is why he revealed his views
on the nature of alcoholism that, one accepted route to alcoholism, perhaps the
most common, begins with regular drinking. The amount taken are higher in some
individuals for a variety of reasons, such as occupation, access by price and
licensing hours, the cultural attitudes towards drinking group to which individual
belongs, family background, peer group imitation and so on.
In the view of the above, the issue of explosive alcoholism and
its consequences in our society is not peculiar to any particular section or
any socio-cultural groups in the society. It is a national menace and problems
of both the developing and the developed countries worldwide. among the
problems caused by alcoholism are drivers delinquency, disregard to
authorities, figtiting, stealing, accident, want on destruction of valuable
property, hooliganism and so on.
Alcohol has an ancient history long before human began to keep
records of any kind, alcohol was valued as food, medicine and ceremonial drinks
due to this fact, some people have been trying to expand their visions and
awareness with the use of alcohol. The consumption of alcohol has always been
fact of life. The use of alcohol is frequently an expression of rebellion
against the authority oral expression of hostility towards social authority,
though this is glaring and have been examine by some eminent scholars in their
articles and books (Mental Health worker: Book free publishing company limited)
          In the society,
alcohol is being used to display hospitality in festivals, performing rites and
secular and religious purposes. These have led to alcoholic dependence which
created psychological and economic problems for the individual and society at
large.
          The excessive
consumption of alcoholic drinks led to depression of the brain especially, the
higher function of the brain and retards intellectual ability of the students
at the same time. There is tendency for the students to behave negatively to
the elders in the society, school authorities and his/her fellow students.
Alcohol is more likely to send one off sleep than make one awakes and alert
though the degree of tolerance to alcohol acting on the brain and nerves
varies.
          In this computer
age, alcohol has been exposed to several other uses for physical and
psychological reasons, alcohol is employed as a drug therapies so also as coolant
in nuclear reactor.
          Adolescents take
alcoholic drinks more extensively and more frequently. The reasons for
adolescent drinking habit are probably on the body.
          Things surrounding
the reasons for alcoholism on the automobile drivers are topic of discussion in
this project and the possible causes. To mention a few, those things intended
to be discuss in this work are effects of alcoholic consumption on the students
themselves, the teachers, parents and on the community at large.
          Also, the rate at
which students consumed alcohol is high and it shall be identified as well as
the time the students consume it.
          This study shall
supply more insight into the effects of alcohol drinking habits of secondary
school students and the consumption of alcohol addicts.
Statement of the Problem
          Most automobile see
alcoholic drinking habit as a pleasure without necessary considering the
implications it has on their health.
          A lot of factors
were said to be responsible for the diver action or habit. A particular school of
thought attributed the students’ action to the peer group while another one
associated students’ behavior to the societal norms. Whatever the causes of the
automobile diver habits, what is observed is that alcoholic drinking habit is
very common among the driver and this is giving many people serious concerned.
          In view of the
problem highlighted above, it is necessary to investigate alcoholism  and its effect on automobile accident in Nigeria with
reference to Ekiti state
Significance  of the Study
          The purpose of this
study is the effect of alcoholism on autobomble accident in Ekiti state. The
rate of consumption of alcoholic drinks among the driver will be revealed. The
prevalence of the alcoholic drinking among the driver, the reason why automobile
driver indulge in drinking, the beliefs, opinion and reaction of driver in
taking alcohol will be investigated.
          Also, the research
will study the implication  of alcoholic
drinking habit  and it’s effect on
automobile accident. Finally, the ways of curbing alcoholic drinking habit
among the driver in Ekiti state  will be
suggested.
Purpose of study:
The purpose of studying the Alcoholism and it effect on automobile
accident in Nigeria
with special reference to Ekiti state
The major object of this study 
include:
1.    To find out the adverse effects of Alcoholism on the self-concept
of driver in Ekiti state
2.    To know the involvement of males and females in the use of
alcohol.
3.    To find out the attitudes of 
driver towards the use of alcohol in Ekiti
4.    To investigate the effect of alcohol on automobile accident in
ekiti state
5.    To be able to highlight plausible suggestions that will at least
help to reduce the excessive drinking of alcohol.
Research Question
The study tries to find out answers to the following questions:
1.    Does taking alcohol affects automobile driver in Ekiti state
2.    Is there any effects c Alcohol talking on automobile accident in Ekiti
state?
3.    Can Driver still concentrate while 
taking Alcohol?
4.    What are the likely attitude of driver  who engage in alcoholism?
Research Question
      1.      Are there any difference in the attitude of driver that indulge in
alcoholic drinking habit and those that do not?
      2.      What are the factors responsible for alcoholic habit of among
automobile driver
      3.      What are the ways of curbing alcoholic drinking among driver in
Ekiti state.
Hypothesis
          To be able to
achieve the desired goals in this project some hypothesis has been raised and
these will be critically examined and analyzed in the course of the data
interpretation.
Ho: There is no
significant difference in the attitudes of automobile driver that indulge in
alcoholic drinking habit and those that do not.
H1: There is no
significant difference between the alcoholic consumption and drinking habit of
the automobile from rural unit and those from urban unit.
Scope Of The Study
The study is limited to Ekiti state. Due to time factor and
financial constraints, the researcher cannot go beyond some selected unit in Ekiti State
Definition of Terms
v Alcohol: This is the liquid substance made in fermenting of sugar
and forming intoxicating part of fermented drinks. It is intoxicating liquid
present in beer, wine etc.
v Alcohol Abuse: This term relates to the unapproved use of any
brand of alcohol which is capable of affecting the state of the body or mind.
v Alcoholism: This is a chronic and often recurring illness that has
multiple causations including genetic, psychological and sociological factors.
v Drugs: Any chemical compound that may be used on or administered
on humans or animals as an aid in diagnose treatment or prevent of diseases.
v Stimulants: These are food or drugs that reliefs fatigue to keep a
person agile or reliefs fatigue to keep a person agile or awake e.g. Colanut,
Coffee, and Cocaine. Etc.
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